When someone says that a particular digital certificate (like an SSL cert) has been "signed with a key", what does that imply? Does that mean the certificate simply includes a key that should be used for further message exchanges? Does that mean that the cert itself is encrypted and can only be decrypted with that key? Does it imply something else? Thanks in advance.
Ideally, it means that someone looked at the certificate and decided that it is correct and legitimate. Once they've done that, they want to tell people "Hey, I've verified that this certificate is good. I trust it". To do this, they use their signing key to sign the certificate.
The actually signing probably depends on what kind of certificate it is. I think this is a useful read.
Typically the "one of more digital signatures" part is done by listing an set of encrypted hashes of the certificate. So when you want to sign a certificate, you would compute the hash of the certificate, encrypt it using your private signing key, and add it to the list of digital signatures.
It implies that the entity owning that key has vouched for the accuracy of the information in the certificate and has attached information to the certificate that permits that vouching to be verified.
No. Certificates only prove identity.
No. There's no reason to encrypt certificates, they only contain public information.
It implies that the owner of that key has vouched for the information in the certificate. For a typical SSL certificate, the information in the certificate is a binding between a public key and a common name.
For example, when you point your browser at
So the purpose of the certificate signature is to put the signing agent's credibility behind the information in the certificate which is fundamentally "this guy owns this key".
Here is the structure of an X.509 certificate:
The data contained in the certificate itself is the
This is then combined with the signature to form a
Essentially, a digest of
Using RSA keys, the signing of the digest using the private key is mathematically very similar to what would be done for encryption using the public key. This is not the same conceptually, though, and DSA doesn't have that reciprocity, for example.
The principle is the same for other types of certificates, although the structure may differ. Considering that PGP public keys are in fact certificates, you may be interested in these questions too: