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Is anyone aware of a C# code sample to interact with smartcard, hardware security module, TPM chips (etc), that will allow me to encrypt and decrypt data?

My goal is to allow my application to support a variety of key stores, and should the administrator decide they want the Private key to reside on those devices, I want to be able to support that.

Is there a consistent, or universal way to access these devices? Is there a way through C#?

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up vote 5 down vote accepted

In the Windows world, cryptography with special hardware goes through the "Cryptographic Service Providers" (CSP). A CSP is a module registered in the OS, which offers access to such a kind of hardware.

From C#, you can look at RSACryptoServiceProvider, which can be created with some parameters which designate a specific CSP.

The non-Windows world tends to use PKCS#11 for that. Google finds some software packages which can apparently use a PKCS#11 DLL (i.e. the driver for the crypto hardware) from C#; e.g. pkcs11.net and NCryptoki (the former seems to be open source, not the latter).

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+1. In other words - you need the "driver" for the specific hardware. One tip - make sure to look at the CSPParameters class, too... –  AviD Jan 20 '11 at 0:52
    
Using C# on non-Windows is not a nice idea anyway. If your application is in fact a user-facing application (meaning you're more interested in accessing a smart card rather than a HSM) you're better off with CryptoAPI than PKCS#11, as CryproAPI layer takes better care of usability issues than PKCS#11 (think: certificate selection, PIN entry etc) While it is generally possible to have "universal" crypto interfaces, I suggest to consider user experience and usability as well. Choose usability and implementation complexity over portability and ease of coding. –  martin Jun 14 '11 at 8:12
    
Related: Should I use Microsoft's RSA CSP or AES CSP for best interoperability? security.stackexchange.com/q/15626/396 –  makerofthings7 Jun 4 '12 at 11:41
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