PCI compliance is not insurance.
It is not a real measure of protection.
I sum up the value of of PCI compliance in my well-known eponymous law, AviD's Law of Compliance:
PCI compliance reduces the risk of the penalties of non-compliance.
In other words, much like how paying taxes is a requirement but does not necessarily entitle you to any specific government benefit - you have to be compliant. And if you're not, you will have to pay a fine. But this does not necessarily help with preventing breaches or responding to them...
As I answered in Vulnerability scanning applicability for PCI DSS, compliance is not about security.
As the other answers here mentioned, you need to implement security controls and secure features aside from the compliance. If you get breached, you still have fallout from that.
However, being compliant in the event of a breach does mean that you won't be getting a non-compliance fine. (See AviD's law above...) You'll need to pay any other costs, such as damages and repair costs, but at least there won't be a fine (well, at least not from PCI - other laws and regulations may apply).