I want to know how phishing and malware protection features are implemented in modern browsers like Chrome, Firefox, IE etc. Are these features heuristic based, or do browsers maintain a list of blacklisted websites like in case of mozilla . Secondly, is there any security standard or specification the browser must be compliant with?
Safe Browsing API
Google offers Safe Browsing, which uses URL lists as well as heuristics:
The Safe Browsing API is used by Chrome, Firefox, and Safari, but the effectiveness varies by implementation.
IE uses its own methods of protection (SmartScreen), but the process is very similar to Safe Browsing.
Effectiveness of each browser from various tests show vastly different results depending on the type of tests run.