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I've been drilling down in granularity for this question: Besides IP addresses, how else could one be identified? and I'd like to focus upon the internet browser.

What are the digital tracks an internet browser leaves behind? What tools can be used to recover these tracks and what level of access is required to use them? Also how, and to what extent, can these tracks be obfuscated?

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Behind where? On the internet service provider? On the copper? In RAM? On your machine? On the NSA servers? Please be more specific! – NULLZ Jul 8 '13 at 3:35
I believe my reply on the original thread addresses this. – Rohan Durve - Decode141 Jul 8 '13 at 11:39

Digital tracks is a bit misleading. The question you have linked to, and a few others here, go into detail about what identifies your browser or computer.

This is what each Web server will see. And this can be logged, along with what pages are visited and when.

What you clicked on can not be obfuscated. The same goes for what pages you view. To see the pages you have to request them, so the server has this data.

The only thing you can obfuscate is your identifying information, so wiping cookies, using an anonymising browser, building a new VM each time you go online etc. as described in those other questions is essential if you do want to stay anonymous.

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You might want to have a look at the Panopticlick project.

I know of Privoxy to reduce your browser-footprint, maybe some plugins exist.

About the tracks you leave behind: its not just the page you visit, its also 3rd party-cookies/tracker scripts/e.t.c. (facebook/adwords) where you leave footsteps behind. To reduce that level of tracking, you can use browser-plugins like AdBlock/NoScript/RequestPolicy/Ghostery/HTTPS Everywhere/...

What tools can be used to recover these tracks and what level of access is required to use them?

Ask your agency-of-choice.

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