Some emails are suspected to be viruses; Because of that, the email service store categorizes them as spam. Or some pages are suspected to be viruses, and new browsers classify them as harmful pages. As you know, many viruses and malware can't run on Linux (like Ubuntu). Here is my question: Can harmful pages or those type of spam (junk) emails harm my data? Maybe by phishing, data transfer (from my HDD), attacking cookies, or any other types of hacks?
closed as unclear what you're asking by AJ Henderson, Adi, Xander, schroeder♦, NULLZ Aug 6 '13 at 23:11
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A virus or any other form of malicious email may "harm your data" only by exploiting a vulnerability in the overall system, leading to execution of attacker-controlled instructions.
The "overall system" includes both the user's computer, and the user himself. In a phishing attempt, the primary vulnerability is the meat bag: the email contents induce the human user to take actions which are in accordance with the pursuance of the attacker's goal but ultimately detrimental to the user himself. This is not new and such attacks have far preceded the invention of computers. However, a recent twist is the realization that many users seem to lose their common sense when dealing with a computer, making them easy targets for con-artists.
Linux-based operating systems, generally speaking, have proven less vulnerable to malicious code in emails than Windows, for several reasons:
However, remember that the OS and its applicative software can only have limited success at fixing vulnerabilities in the human side of the system. Software can try to avoid "dangerous" situations in which humans have been known to take really wrong decisions with alarmingly high probability, but ultimately the user MUST demonstrate a less-than-absolute gullibility. Otherwise there is no possible security.
Therefore, malicious emails harming your data are improbable (but at least theoretically possible) if you use Linux and if, as a human user, you do not do anything foolish.
SPAM isn't always viruses or even always malicious. SPAM just refers to unwanted e-mail and is often advertising or get rich schemes or similar. Normally e-mails with viruses attached aren't forwarded, they are simply deleted or the attachment removed. Links in e-mails may go to viruses, which may or may not include Linux compatible versions (because viruses and exploits do exist for Linux, even if it is targeted less often).
More likely however are phishing attempts. These are e-mails that look like a valid page but actually are not. They don't try to do anything to your local computer, so the OS you are running doesn't matter, they can still report whatever information you enter on them to an attacker.
I'm not sure what you mean by bad sectors. Bad sectors are a physical problem with a hard drive, not an attack against a computer.