There are two primary techniques for mitigating stack based buffer overflows.
The first technique is attacking the problem at the roots. Buffer overflows occur a program tries to write outside the bounds of a data structure. The most effective way to stop a buffer overflow is to stop this from occurring. Use a programming language, be it Java, Python, Ruby, that will manage the memory for you. If you must use C, ensure that you perform proper checks before writing to a buffer.
The second technique involves mitigating the damage a buffer overflow can cause. Techniques like stack canaries, DEP and ASLR falls under this category. They work to limit the damage a buffer overflowing can occur by making it more difficult for an attacker to execute arbitrary code after an overflow. Such techniques can be defeated. For more information about DEP and ASLR, see this question.