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This question already has an answer here:

If the HTTPS webserver uses self signed certificate, the web browser warns the user as follow.

I am curious how can browser tell if the certificate is self signed or not(in detail). is there any technically detailed document which describes this process?

thank you in advance.

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marked as duplicate by NULLZ, Adi, GdD, TildalWave, Rory Alsop Nov 20 '13 at 11:00

This question was marked as an exact duplicate of an existing question.

You can find the complete detail in RFC5246.

Put very simple: Every certificate should be signed by a third party. Each third party's certificates are included within your browser. The browser can check if the certificate is signed by a third party it trusts, if it's signed by the same server of which you are demanding to see the identity, then it's considered self signed.

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