I am aware that there is the CVE list published by the NVD. Are there any other important vulnerabilities lists that show vulnerabilities other than the NVDs?
NVD covers a lot of vulnerabilities. Aside from those you also have:
They are often linked back to NVD CVE. Another interesting project to follow is vFeed which provides cross linking between vendors and CVE vulnerabilities.
Note that this covers disclosed vulnerabilities. There are still a lot of vulnerabilities which might not get disclosed.
Currently the NVD only pulls from the Mitre CVE database, this will be changing, but for now if Mitre doesn't have an entry written up, it won't be in the NVD database. As for Mitre I know we (Red Hat) have assigned over a thousand CVEs that aren't in the Mitre Database, and even some of the CVEs Mitre assigns (e.g. on oss-security@ mailing list) aren't in the database after weeks/months, there's a huge backlog.
The good news is that for Open Source at least the DWF Project (Distributed Weakness Filing Project https://distributedweaknessfiling.org) will be addressing this and more.