The problem here is that the salt mission isn't to be "secret", the purpose is to be unique so when an attacker "try a password" with that known salt it can only compare the generated pass with this one original hash because all other passwords will have different hashes.
Consider not having a salt:
As you can see, user1 and user4 use the very same password because the hash generated are identical. So, when an attacker find this, he can hash one common word, for example: "rabbit" and then compare rabbit against the whole password hash database. He will also know that all the identical hashes has been generated with the very same password.
This is great for an attacker because he only need to hash ONE time to compare it hash against the whole database.
On the other hand, consider the very same salted user table
Now all the password hashes are different because of the salt, even user1 and user4 who used the very same password has different hashes.
This is bad news for an attacker he will need to compute the word rabbit with every single salt he finds in the database so he will a lot of time to do this. And this is the real value added by the salt.