Sticky bit are mentioned in every UNIX security book, but I couldn't find anyone that describes the exploitation of Sticky Bit set on a file.
Note that the "on some older systems" part applies to various BSD systems. Linux has never had any special handling for the sticky bit on files. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sticky_bit for more detail about that.
From a security standpoint, it's really just about understanding why that permission exists on the /tmp directory, and possibly others. It prevents users from deleting the files of others in a directory that can be written to by multiple users. It's really only an issue if you don't set it and somebody gets delete happy on others' files.