How can I find statistical data about the performance of various encryption systems, such as RSA, DSA, ECC etc?
You will find a lot of data on the eBACS site (in particular in the "eBATS" section for asymmetric cryptography). Note, though, that:
(For the last point, an example is speed of elliptic curve operations on various fields. CPU-based implementation, i.e. software, will be much faster with curves on prime fields GF(p) than for curves over binary fields GF(2m); but dedicated FPGA/ASIC the converse is true.)
So while you can have hoards of figures, be aware that the problem of defining a general one-size-fits-all performance measure for an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm, is hard.
If you are asking about the performance of various encryption algorithms, a good starting point can be obtained by running
You can see that RSA signature verification and RSA encryption operations are extremely fast (10K-40K operations/second, depending upon security level). RSA signature generation and RSA decryption are slower (300-2K ops/sec). DSA signature generation and signature verification both run at about the same speed (1K-3K ops/sec).
This benchmark doesn't show ECC cryptography, but generally speaking, you should expect ECC cryptography to be faster and yield shorter signatures/ciphertexts than DSA, for a given security level.