Is there a cyber warfare equivalent to the JTLS? Is a "cyber range" the correct term for something like that?
Are you familiar with the the DETER project? It might be the sort of thing you are looking for.
A note of caution: I find that those new to the area sometimes have a lot of enthusiasm for the idea of "cyber testbeds", "cyber ranges", and the like, but personally, I am more skeptical. Unless you already have substantial experience in the field, I think it is easy to overestimate the benefits of these things. There is no silver bullet to security.
Yes, both JFCOM and DARPA have worked on cyber ranges for the US Government.
If you search for the JFCOM Information Operations range you will find several published pdfs and papers regarding the architecture of the range.
Here is the Wikipedia stub article for the NCR: