A Certificate Authority is the collection of hardware, software, and people responsible for issuing certificates in a hierarchical PKI. CAs may be public, as in SSL / TLS and government IDs, or private, as in corporate infrastructures. The primary responsibility of a public CA is to verify the ...

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11
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4answers
7k views

Do I really need all these Certificate Authorities in my browser or in my keychain?

There are lots of strange looking Certificate Authorities in my keychain as well as Firefox. I am sure they are legitimate CAs (as they are the same on my Mac and PC and other computers I checked). ...
13
votes
1answer
239 views

Yubikey / GPG with OpenSSH signed key

I am currently looking into the possibility of using Yubikey (NEO)'s to store the private SSH keys of my users. By searching the internet I've found several places that explain how you can generate a ...
2
votes
3answers
267 views

HTTPS client certificates for server-to-server

Say you have two servers with certificates proving their domains (e.g. for use with HTTPS). Can one of these servers use their certificate as a client certificate when talking to the other, so that ...
1
vote
1answer
93 views

What can a trusted certificate do?

I am doing some reading about security on mobile applications because I found an article about Man in the Middle Attacks. I saw in that article and in many other places (including ...
13
votes
3answers
1k views

Should I be concerned that Google no longer trusts specific Symantec root CA cert that is also on my Windows system?

This is related to this other question which refers to Google moving to distrust the "Class 3 Public Primary CA" root certificate operated by Symantec Corporation, across Chrome, Android, and Google ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

How does a Certificate Private Key get transferred on import / export?

I am fairly new to certificates in general and have setup my own standalone CA for testing purposes. I have noticed some interesting behavior of private keys which I'm trying to find some ...
0
votes
1answer
151 views

Creating root CA to issue certificates programatically

I have to generate a self signed root CA and use it to issue to certificates programatically. I am new to security and certificates and I think I am missing some pieces required to make the whole ...
2
votes
6answers
6k views

How can I know that the CA certificates in my computer have not been spoofed?

As far as I know, the browser contains the certificates of several CA. When I access http://gmail.com, the site says it is Gmail, it exposes a certificate signed by one of the CA I have in my ...
19
votes
7answers
4k views

Why are self signed certificates not trusted and is there a way to make them trusted?

I have locally made a Root CA certificate. I used the CA cert to sign the IA cert and used the IA cert to sign the server certificate. When I try to access the local server which uses the server ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Should my company change the internal Root CA hash method from SHA-1 to SHA-2?

My company have a Root Certificate Authority which is installed on a Windows Server 2003 and uses SHA-1 as hash method. We will migrate to Windows Server 2012. Checking the root certificates of my ...
3
votes
2answers
39 views

Question about SSL certificate and third party server

I have a system which consume web-services from a public server on Internet (but the data are not public) I have to provide credentials in Basic Auth to get the data, that is why we use SSL. The ...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

Windows certificate verification with timestamping

I have been trying to replicate the behaviour of the Digital Signatures tab on windows file properties. I'm using WinVerifyTrust api and X509Certificates namespace to achieve my goal. I've managed to ...
24
votes
4answers
31k views

how digital signature verification process works

I am not able to understand that how the digital signature is verified. I know that digital signature will be attached to the message and sent by sender to receiver. then receiver uses the public key ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Are there any downsides to using Let's Encrypt for a website's SSL certificates?

On the advantages side, I see several benefits to using the Let's Encrypt service (e.g., the service is free, easy to setup, and easy to maintain). I'm wondering what, if any, are the disadvantages to ...
-1
votes
0answers
21 views

What prevents certificate spoofing? [duplicate]

If someone takes the information on a legitimate certificate and provides it to an illegitimate server for distribution of the certificate as if it were the illegitimate server's certificate what tips ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Re-sign Certificate Using Different Hashing Algorithm

Consider a certificate used by a Certification Authority. This is currently hashed using SHA-1. I'd like to keep the same public/private key for this, but hash it using SHA-256. By hash it I mean hash ...
11
votes
1answer
12k views

SSL Certificate framework 101: How does the browser actually verify the validity of a given server certificate? [duplicate]

Sorry I know this is a complete noob question and at the risk of posting a somewhat duplicate topic. I have a basic understanding of public/private key, hashing, digital signature... I have been ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

SSL self-signed certificates in development vs acquired cert in production?

I am a developer, I have created self-signed certificates before for my work. This time, I am involved up until going live with the whole app (usually there was someone else in charge of this). ...
3
votes
3answers
164 views

Why are root certificate authorites allowed to issue certficates for any domain?

Why are certificate authorites allowed to issue certificates trusted by browsers for any domain name? Doesn't that imply that one highjacked root certificate authority can issue trusted fake ...
0
votes
2answers
39 views

How to avoid writing .pem while signing a csr?

I am using following command to sign a certificate, openssl ca \ -in client.csr \ -keyfile server.key \ -cert server.crt \ -outdir ./some_dir \ ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Validation client certificate for site in iis

Input: I send client certificate to client. He uses it to work with my web application which works in IIS. I installed CA certificate (which was used to create client certificate) on web server. AFAIK ...
7
votes
1answer
12k views

SSL certificate chain verification

After reading many articles and watching many tutorials I decided to be specific because there are some things about SSL certificate chain verification and SSL cetificate verification in general that ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

What, or who, exactly is a Certificate Authority (CA) for TPM attestation?

I'm learning about and researching the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) to incorporate into a solution involving remote machines. As I understand it: all attestation methods (AIK, DAA) still require ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

S/MIME certificates and “information leakage”

I'm considering getting an S/MIME certificate that verifies my name and email address. I've been trying to ascertain what information "leaks" if I do. The Wikipedia page on S/MIME says: Depending ...
0
votes
3answers
87 views

what do you do when an ssl certificate expires and your app uses ssl pinning?

I originally posted this question on StackOverflow, but reposted here due to lack of responses. I am trying to decide if it's a good idea to do ssl pinning in my iOS game that uses a server to ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Why does SubjectAltName not turn up in my CSR?

Does the CSR generated contains the SubjectAltName I have configured the openssl.cnf file to support extensions and when i dump the CSR i can see subject is available not the SubjectAltName This is ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

How does DCOM authentication compare to RPC based authentication/auth?

The following paragraph from MSFT Best Practices for 2003 PKI says Windows 2000 authenticated via RPC vs 2003 that authenticates using DCOM A CA running Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition, ...
1
vote
2answers
79 views

Self-signed cert - how it works

I am new to SSL / digital certificates / signatures. What I know is that a digital signature must be verified/decrypted using the public key. So a cert that is signed by a CA must be ...
0
votes
2answers
92 views

SSL digital certificate process - high level

I am a project manager and is touching on an IT project consisting of the usual 3 tier - web/client - middleware - database. In this case, I have an web server and needs to implement SSL ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Mutual Authentication and Authorisation with Certificates from various CAs

Edit: Having read this question and answer I have a bit more of an understanding. My question now then, is: can I use a certificate that a user has had signed by a registered CA such as VeriSign, ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Windows Firewall Connection Security with Certificate

I've been fiddling with the Windows firewall configuration of some computers within a VMWare based LAN (no domain). To aid in my testing and debugging, I created a small, self-hosted console ...
4
votes
2answers
724 views

Will Let's Encrypt require SNI from the operators?

I'm curious if anyone knows whether the upcoming Let's Encrypt initiative would effectively require SNI. What I mean is, with the proliferation of the cloud, almost every web-site owner, even with ...
15
votes
2answers
271 views

How much of a problem is it that Windows “hides” some of the trusted root CA certs?

Based on information on this page, Windows actually trusts many more root CA certificates than what are displayed when a user launches certmgr.msc and navigates to Trusted Root Certification ...
95
votes
13answers
25k views

Is there any technical security reason not to buy the cheapest SSL certificate you can find?

While shopping for a basic SSL cert for my blog, I found that many of the more well-known Certificate Authorities have an entry-level certificate (with less stringent validation of the purchaser's ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Why would Amazon include an already trusted Root CA in the bug report they filed to get into Mozilla's truststore?

Amazon will soon be a trusted Root CA. To this end Mozilla Bug #1172401 was filed a while back to get into Mozilla's trust store. Along with 4 of their own Root CAs they've included a fifth one ...
5
votes
1answer
113 views

Securely build a list of trusted CAs

Some distributions of the cURL bundle include a utility mk-ca-bundle.pl which compiles a ca-bundle.crt from Mozilla's root certificate store for use as a list of trusted authorities. The script prints ...
0
votes
2answers
243 views

Security of SSL certificates bought via resellers

There are many SSL certificate resellers - some are well known enterprises with good reputation (e.g. domain name registrars) while others are small and unknown companies. It is clear that resellers ...
1
vote
2answers
121 views

Why/when would a CA make a generated public key available to the public at large?

I'm confused about this section in my CEH security exam training material: A CA is able to perform a number of roles in addition to the validation process outlined here. Some actions that a CA is ...
11
votes
3answers
185 views

Why is Firefox shipped with expired root certificates?

What's the purpose of shipping Firefox with expired root certs? I checked and there are two expired certs listed. In fact the company's website for the first expired cert (A-Trust) states that the ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

How does Windows certificate manager verify a file's certificate, if the root certificate is not in the store?

I'm working on a project which requires certificate verification for executable files. I have created my own trusted root certificate store, and used openssl to perform verification. However, when I ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

Why not to use the same subordinate issuer CA for generating certificates that will be used for different things?

Microsoft has recommended my organization to use different subordinate issuer CAs in order to issue certificates that will be used for different things. For example, they recommend to use a CA for ...
3
votes
1answer
308 views

Are WoSign S/MIME certificates generated on the server side and therefore unsafe to use?

WoSign has been in the media for offering free server and client certificates. Since one of my (free) S/MIME certificate from another CA is about to expire soon after one year and WoSign offers ...
3
votes
1answer
875 views

How can a trusted intranet certificate be issued if they are being phased out?

I've just seen this article regarding the phasing out of intranet names on SSL certificates. However, CAs such as this one claim to still issue them and it will be "Trusted by all popular browsers" ...
1
vote
1answer
171 views

Root certificate from an CA company which can be encrpyted by SoftHSM

Does anybody know a CA company which allows me to put the bought CA certificate inside SoftHSM (the same as an HSM but without any hardware, it is pure software)? Is it hard to work with the PKCS11 ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

Designing a PKI environment

For our company I was given the task to design a durable, structured PKI environment for mainly client authentication purposes. We need a Root CA with a couple of Intermediate CAs, like this: ...
5
votes
2answers
93 views

How do I produce a CA signed public key?

I have a need to have somebody else encrypt secret data with my public key that I can then decrypt with my private key. I have produced an RSA private/public key pair with OpenSSL gave them the public ...
6
votes
2answers
201 views

Why do Symantec not believe their customers will be affected by Google distrusting this root certificate?

So Google will be moving to distrust the “Class 3 Public Primary CA” root certificate operated by Symantec Corporation, across Chrome, Android, and Google products, because it is no longer going to ...
3
votes
0answers
54 views

How does a Sign tool work?

My basic understanding about sign tool is: 1.It loads the zipfile(may be exe,jar,ddl,apk..) which has to be signed to its memory(cache memory of the sign tool). 2.It will verify it, and unzip the ...
9
votes
2answers
27k views
8
votes
2answers
590 views

How do user receive server's certificate?

Let's imagine our user's computer wants to talk to some server for the first time in history via https. The computer sends a hello message, the server sends his public key and the certificate, ...