Cryptography is the practice and study of logical means used to achieve information confidentiality, integrity and authenticity. It covers, among other things, encryption (making some data unreadable except for those who know a given secret element, called a key), data hashing (in particular for ...

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28
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7answers
15k views

Where can I learn cryptography/cryptanalysis the hard way, without going to school ? Any good book?

I'm not so bad at mathematics: I know what are p-list and p-combinations, I know matrix algebra, I know what a XOR is, I know how to tell if number is a prime, etc: I'm not the programmer who hates ...
4
votes
1answer
295 views

self-signatures using SHA1

This page says: self-signatures must not use SHA1 You can check this by doing: gpg --export-options export-minimal --export <keyid> | gpg --list-packets |grep -A 2 signature|grep ...
6
votes
2answers
489 views

NSA crypto Suite B - historical

I'm looking for information on what NSA suggested for use in commercial systems in past times. 90's and early 2000's. I'm mainly interested in PKI and symmetric cyphers for SSL and file/disk ...
35
votes
15answers
6k views

Why do people think that this is bad way to hash passwords?

Well, please tell me, what's wrong with this code: $password = "hello"; $password = md5($password); for($i=1;$i<20;$i++){ $password = md5($password); } It's exactly the same as this one: ...
0
votes
2answers
795 views

Best ways to store a password Server side [closed]

I was using Lotus Notes today and I realized that the program asks password is encrypted in many ways. even without access to the stored passwords notes I can say that they are at least as recorded in ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

SSL Session resumption and IDs

Some sites, as seen in the report for www.mbank.com.pl [ssllabs.com] or report for aliorbank.pl [ssllabs.com] do not support "Session resumption", either because IDs are assigned but not accepted ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

What are the most common password salting methods?

I learned that the Sun guys used the login name as salt for password hashing. Is this a common approach? What are the most common salt values?
9
votes
2answers
5k views

Is 1024bit Diffie Hellman key exchange secure?

My system uses AES-256, 4096bit RSA CA key and 2048bit RSA keys for servers together with SHA-256 signing. Does using 1024bit DH key exchange lower its security? I read on one mailing list that ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Which cipher suites with AES cipher provide forward secrecy?

Does standard AES with RSA (reported by Opera as TLS v1.0 256 bit AES (1024 bit RSA/SHA)) provide perfect forward secrecy? Which SSL3.0 and TLS1.0 ciphers do provide forward secrecy? Which ciphers ...
6
votes
3answers
12k views

Which type of encryption algorithms android supports, and which would be better?

I read this documentation, and I have written an algo to encrypt and decrypt a string. But I don't know how many types of algorithms android supports. Regarding DES and AES (As wiki documentation) ...
6
votes
6answers
3k views

Are there any “real world” implementations of secret-sharing encryption schemes?

Imagine something like TrueCrypt where user A can decrypt his files, or any 3 of the 10 directors in his organization can decrypt user A's files. As I understand it this is similar to the way the ...
1
vote
2answers
9k views

What are private key cryptography and public key cryptography, and where are they useful?

I don't understand the real world usage scenarios of these cryptography methods. Can any one please explain how they work, with examples and also their usage in the real world?
12
votes
4answers
555 views

Encrypting data by parts vs encrypting the whole data

Suppose I have a file with records, and I have two options to encrypt it: encrypt the file as a whole encrypt each record separately and store them together. Which way is generally preferable and ...
7
votes
2answers
754 views

Encryption Algorithms with an error code for wrong password

I am looking for an encryption algorithm that would allow me to know if the password supplied is the correct one or not. This question can be considered as a follow-up for Q. In particular the answer ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How difficult is it to modify an ISO image and still have the old md5 check sum?

If I want to download the ubuntu11.04.iso then: UBUNTUMIRRORSRV -> ISP -> ISP -> etc. -> MYPC I just want to ask that how difficult is to spoof the original MD5 sum (e.g.: the md5sum would be ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Export laws on the cloud (key size)

Do the U.S. export laws around AES-256 apply to applications hosted in the cloud?
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Where do I get prime numbers for Diffie-Hellman? Can I use them twice?

I realise it's very hard to generate suitable prime numbers and generators for the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. What is the best way to generate them? And if I have one, can I use it twice? ...
6
votes
2answers
733 views

How do I use Skein's Stream Cipher?

I understand the NIST hash function competition candidate Skein comes with a built-in block cipher, Threefish, that is turned into a stream cipher by using Unique Block Iteration chaining (is that ...
16
votes
3answers
2k views

What happens when an Intermediate CA is revoked?

Currently I'm working on a certificate manager that allows our product to securely connect to remote webservices (over TLS/SSL). For security, we use Certificate Revocation List checking (or ...
11
votes
5answers
628 views

Security of using passwords or even passphrases to encrypt files

Is it ever appropriate to use real-world passwords to encrypt files to be sent via unsecure means. By real world, I mean a password that is memorable and memorisable by a mere person? I am implying ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Is this prime number large enough / too large for a Diffie-Hellman for AES-256?

I'm using a Diffie-Hellman key exchange to encrypt data using AES-256. The prime number I'm using is the one from the 8192bit group specified in RFC 3526 (page 6). Page 7 suggests that, with a 620 ...
6
votes
2answers
825 views

Is it better to hash n*x times in sha1 or n times in sha512 on the client side?

I already know I"m going to hash the user's password n times in either sha512 or n*x in sha1 before it is sent to the server. Once at the server, I'm going to use bcrypt set to use ~1/100th of a ...
5
votes
4answers
750 views

mathematically / theoretically, what is the chance that 2 different inputs would have the same results of 2 different hash functions?

mathematically / theoretically, what is the chance that 2 different inputs would have the same results of 2 different hash functions? As an example, i will use 2 weaker hash algorithms, the MD5 ...
6
votes
1answer
978 views

Public key length

I was wondering if there was (and I hope there is) a standard for public key size for ECDH (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman) and ECDSA (Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) for every curve type ...
4
votes
2answers
6k views

Can DES-based hashed password be recovered if salt is known?

Can a hashed password be recovered if the hashing is done with DES based crypt function in PHP and both the hash and salt are known by the attacker? Consider the following example: $salt = 'mysalt'; ...
14
votes
2answers
987 views

Salting password with the first 8 bit of the password itself

Do you guys think salting password with the first 8 bit of the password itself will have same result as using stored salt to hash password? [Clarification] I am not storing salt but creating from the ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

chosen plaintext attacks against MD5 and SHA1

According to http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2617#section-4.9, having the server chose a nonce but not having the client chose a nonce opens up Digest Access authentication to chosen plaintext attacks. ...
2
votes
2answers
209 views

Which private-key encryption should I use for server to server communication?

I am tempted to write my own which covers: Checksum to ensure data is not tampered with. Long and multiple rotating keys so that it is (practically) impossible to decrypt. Will use /dev/random for ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Is there any advantage of bcrypt over multiple iterations of SHA-x/MD5?

I know that a good password hashing algorithm should be slow. MD5, SHA256, etc. are fast. So I've been adding multiple iterations of SHA-256 hashing to my web apps (around 50000). Getting the hash of ...
141
votes
3answers
120k views

What's the difference between SSL, TLS, and HTTPS?

I get confused with the terms in this area. What is SSL, TLS, and HTTPS? What are the differences between them?
1
vote
1answer
642 views

Nonce construction for CTR mode (Mcrypt)

Edit: I'll put up this more clearly. By the most simplest form, I'm asking that if I AES encrypt in CTR more with Mcrypt (using PHP), can I create the "IV" by just simply reading 16 bytes from ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

What's the mathematical model behind the security claims of symmetric ciphers and digest algorithms?

Why can SHA-1 be considered a secure hash function? That's something I still wonder about. I understand the concepts of why modern asymmetric algorithms are deemed to be secure. They are founded on ...
235
votes
7answers
181k views

RSA vs. DSA for SSH authentication keys

When generating SSH authentication keys on a Unix/Linux system with ssh-keygen, you're given the choice of creating a RSA or DSA key pair (using -t type). What is the difference between RSA and DSA ...
1
vote
2answers
201 views

TCrypto - Comments about design decisions I made?

I have pushed some code to GitHub to demonstrate the usage of symmetric key encryption in PHP. It is a small key-value storage library and it (optionally) offers ability to encrypt the stored ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

When should I use Message layer encryption vs transport layer encryption

Basically I will be having to secure a connection between different hops. Therefore even if TLS is widely known to be the best in class, I am wondering that in such a case message based encryption ...
0
votes
1answer
172 views

Safer k128 key schedule

Can someone explain to me how safer 128's key schedule works? there are many parts that make no sense because they were not described at all in the paper (pages 3 and 5 in the pdf). The second ...
4
votes
1answer
428 views

Asynchonous Linear Feedback Shift Register : test vectors

Well I've been working on coding LFSR structures for my research projects. Being able to find sources on the subject, I've been able to test a single LFSR with different initialisation and TAP ...
5
votes
1answer
960 views

Is the DES “mangler” function invertible?

The DES symmetric cipher is based on a Feistel network operating repeated on 32-bit halves of the 64-bit block. The usage of Feistel means that the "mangler" function used does not need to be ...
14
votes
1answer
7k views

Does Windows really still use unsalted MD4 for password storage?

I find it quite difficult to believe that the passwords in Active Directory for Windows 2008 R2 are still stored using the unsalted MD4 (aka "NT Hash") algorithm. Can it really be true? I've been ...
3
votes
1answer
268 views

Pseudo-Hadamard Transform in SAFER K-64

The PHT seems so simple: b1 = 2*a1 + a2; b2 = a1 + a2. and yet, i am definitely missing something, since the paper for SAFER K-64 shows: INPUT VECTOR is 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OUTPUT VECTOR is 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...
15
votes
3answers
526 views

What is gained by hashing the last block on-device?

Recently I encountered the notion of "hashing the last block on-device". It means that when computing a digital signature, the hash that serves as input for the actual signature computation is not to ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

DUKPT - how does the receiver verify the transaction counter?

I have one question regarding this document: ANSI X9.24, Retail Financial Services Symmetric Key Management Part 1: Using Symmetric Techniques In the chapter "Method: DUKPT (Derived Unique Key Per ...
12
votes
6answers
2k views

Identity-Based Encryption - how secure is it?

I was always taught never to invent my own crypto algorithm, and never to trust someone who has a proprietary algorithm. I'm looking at Voltage SecureMail, which uses IBE (identity-based encryption) ...
8
votes
3answers
735 views

zero knowledge proof and its protocol

In Zero-Knowledge Proof where we take the analogy of Peggy (Prover) and Victor (Verifier): In this story, Peggy has uncovered the secret word used to open a magic door in a cave. The cave is ...
2
votes
2answers
506 views

GOST cipher test vectors

Does anyone know where to find test vectors for the GOST cipher? I have been looking around for quite some time, and have been unable to find anything. I know that the sboxes are dependent on the ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Using password hash as session ID?

For a rich client web app, on the server I need to verify that each call comes from a legally logged in user. Obviously user ID is not enough, because that's easy to guess. I have an idea I am ...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

What to transfer? Password or its hash?

Let's say in my database I store passwords hashed with salt with a fairly expensive hash (scrypt, 1000 rounds of SHA2, whatever). Upon login, what should I transfer over the network and why? Password ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Using computer random number generators to produce keys, it is secure?

Does generating an encryption key using the random number generator on one's computer present a security risk? If so how might that risk be mitigated, specifically when generating RSA key pairs in ...
12
votes
5answers
4k views

Use RSA keypair for PGP encryption and decryption

Is there a way that I can use a RSA keypair with PGP? What I mean is that I have 2048 length keypair and i want to use that to encrypt and decrypt data. But all I have found is that the PGP uses some ...
-11
votes
3answers
429 views

Would this kind of encryption be good at anything?

I have put much thought into this very simple algorithm and I have no clue if it was thought before... But I think it should have. I also know nothing about other encryption algorithms so I can't tell ...