Cryptography is the practice and study of logical means used to achieve information confidentiality, integrity and authenticity. It covers, among other things, encryption (making some data unreadable except for those who know a given secret element, called a key), data hashing (in particular for ...

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Where is the salt on the OpenSSL AES encryption?

I'm interested in knowing how and where OpenSSL inserts the generated salt on an AES encrypted data. Why? Im encrypting data in Java classes and need to guarantee that I can use OpenSSL to decrypt ...
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What are the practical uses of large asymmetric keys?

The Windows CNG supports keys of varying sizes, e.g. RSA up to 16384 bits: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb204778(v=vs.85).aspx. My understanding is that in crypto today we ...
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How do new security and cryptography techniques/protocols avoid the chicken-and-egg problem?

. . .better solutions have been proposed and will be worth considering once they have withstood the test of time (i.e. “5 to 10 years in the field, and not broken yet”). -From Thomas Pornin's ...
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Security of SHA256 and Bitcoins

The Bitcoin network use SHA256 as a core component to it's design. I'm no expert on cryptography, but it seems to me it usually is only a matter of time before security vulnerabilities are discovered ...
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License key / Serial number generator and checker

I need a serial number generator and accompanying checker. I would like to be able to set a salt (and maybe a length). The generator should only produce serial numbers that pass the test of the ...
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What is the DUKPT Key Derivation Function?

I'm tasked with decrypting ciphertext acquired from an encrypted card reader. The card reader utilizes DUKPT(derived unique key per transaction) scheme and 3DES encryption. I don't have a problem with ...
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What does “key with length of x bits” mean?

I'd like to know what it means to say "the cryptosystem C uses keys with a length of x bits". I do not understand what the bits length means... doesn't it depend on the encoding? The same word encodes ...
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SSL handshake failure modes

In SSL if the handshake is not succesful, does it always end with a handshake alert? Or are there other ways to finish the SSL connection (acceptable by standard). I am asking this, because in an ...
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Is Schneier's “Applied Cryptography” current?

I've been recommended Bruce Schneier's 1994 book Applied Cryptography as an introduction to the use and the inner workings of cryptography. Is this book still current and a good introduction?
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Encryption decryption time

Does the encryption / decryption time of rsa algorithm vary significantly with a change in key length? For example, is there a noticeable difference in encryption/decryption time between 512 bit and ...
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Is 1024bit Diffie Hellman key exchange secure?

My system uses AES-256, 4096bit RSA CA key and 2048bit RSA keys for servers together with SHA-256 signing. Does using 1024bit DH key exchange lower its security? I read on one mailing list that ...
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How does a weakness in a random number generator lead to a compromise of the entire cryptographic process?

In the news, there are several articles (here, here, and the technical point of view) which have to do with a weakness in a random number generator. The question is somewhat twofold. What symptoms do ...
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How can I mitigate the threat that DPAPick poses to my DPAPI protected data?

The Windows Data Protection API (DPAPI) is the suggested method for storing secrets on Windows systems (such as database passwords required by ASP.Net applications). DPAPick was presented at BlackHat ...
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SSL Certificate revocation check

In the SSL protocol I don't see where the certificate is checked for revocation status. https://developer.mozilla.org/en/Introduction_to_SSL Is the Certificate Revocation and Status Checking not ...
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How does the padding scheme impact the security of encryption

After digging a little deeper into cryptography I am wondering what impact the different padding schemes do have an the security of an encryption algorithm. Lets take AES-128 in CBC mode as an ...
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Is TDEA (TripleDES) invulnerable to the weak keys of DES?

The key space of DES includes some keys that are weak, which results in a ciphertext that is extra vulnerable to cryptanalysis. Is TDEA (also known as TripleDES) invulnerable to those weak keys? Or, ...
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When brute-forcing DES, does knowing something about the plaintext help?

Data Encryption Standard (Wikipedia) I know that with brute force there are 2^56 possible keys to check (56 bits, each either a 1 or 0). But let's say I know the message itself is only made up of ...
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Securing a prediction about a future event

I want to make a prediction about a future event, but only reveal that prediction after the event occurs lest knowledge of my prediction affect the outcome. For example, suppose Alice predicts that ...
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HMAC Based Request Signing - Storing the Salt

I'm working on a (non high security) project that currently isn't live but might go live at some point. We have a REST API (implemented using Restlet and Neo4j) running on a server and an Android ...
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SSL replay attack when client/server random is missing

Hey studying the SSL protocol, I'm wondering how can someone be able to do a replay attack if the server nonce is missing? All the material I find says that nonces prevent it, but theres no examples ...
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Question about dictionary attacks on GnuPG symmetric encryption

They say algorithms like AES can't practically be broken given a long enough key length (> 128 bits). If I use GnuPG to encrypt a file using AES: gpg -c --cipher-algo AES secretfile it asks me for a ...
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TLS replay attack - requirements of the serverHello nonce

As you all know, the SSL/TLS protocol requires both client and server to exchange (in clear text) a random number or nonce. This is presumably used to prevent replay attacks. It is not clear to me ...
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Suitable cipher for SMS encryption

I would like to create application for encrypting SMS messages. After long enough discussions I decided to use symmetric encryption, since handling public/private keys issue is too difficult for most ...
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AES using derived keys / IVs. Does it introduce a weakness?

I'm looking for an efficient way to encrypt multiple fields in a database with AES using a single global key, used throughout a large web application. Obviously in order to re-use this key, a unique ...
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Are there any smartcard/hardware-tokens for certificate-based authentication which are easily destroyed?

It's all very well to use multi-factor authentication, but supposing you want to 'destroy a factor' so that in an situation where you are likely to be coerced to provide your passphrase, you can ...
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Data Encryption and Key Management in C#

Which route to take, what are the pros and cons, which is more secure.. Generate AES key, encrypt the data with it and then encrypt the AES key with RSA, save the encrypted data and encrypted AES ...
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If I am obliged to store a password/certificate on a client side, how can i make sure that it is protected?

In certain cases we need to establish a key/password/certificate as a first timer and then as a client we need to use this key/password/certificate to get authenticated. Therefore the ...
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Is it preferable to perform encryption using database functions or code?

Several databases I am familiar with provide functions or modules for encryption. Examples include dbms_crypto for oracle databases and built-in functions for MySQL. Most of the commonly used ...
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Estimating the size of a rainbow table

What are rainbow tables and how are they used? Gives a very precise answer about what rainbow tables are and how they are used. I had always confused hash-tables and rainbow tables. My question is ...
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Optimal variable sizes in the Secure Remote Password protocol

I am implementing the Secure Remote Password protocol: U = <username> --> <-- s = <salt from passwd file> a = random() A = g^a ...
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4answers
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Atypical DRM situation: distribute pictures to select partners, then prevent them from reusing them

We want to distribute digital content (think pictures) to a select number of partners (around 1000, worldwide) to use as visual reference. We would like however to prevent them from copying or in any ...
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Is there any asymmetrically encrypted file system?

Is there a file system providing a directory where everybody can write, but only the directory owner can read the files? In theory it could be done by encrypting using the public key while writing, ...
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Certificate authorities for a PKI

Some people think the certificate authorities for a PKI should be the government, but others think certificate authorities should be private entities, such as banks, corporations, or schools. What are ...
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What can one do when encryption methods fail?

I'm in search of an expert to answer my curiosity. Suppose that methods like AES/DES, SSH, PGP, RSA, etc. can be cracked or fail somehow. In other words, suppose that it's possible to determine one ...
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What common products use Public-key cryptography?

I want know what common use products are there that use public key/private key cryptography?
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time to crack file-encryption password - more than just iteration

I have often seen that takes x amount of time to crack a certain length password. But this just seems to be the amount of time it takes to iterate through all the possibilities. What about the time it ...
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Is using HMAC to transmit a password OK?

I'm writing a small webapp and I don't want to transmit login passwords as cleartext. As I don't have SSL available I've written a one-time challenge system which sends a random string with the login ...
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What Partial Homomorphic Encryption implementations exist and how do I leverage them?

It appears that only Partial Homomorphic Encryption(P.H.E.) is practical for modern day (2011) use. However I'm having difficulty locating libraries (FOSS or otherwise) that enable me to leverage ...
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Can the numbers on RSA SecurID tokens be predicted?

My workplace uses these SecurID tokens which provide you with a temporary password, the code will expire after a short time. I have always been fascinated by the things, because it seems as though ...
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Save private messages encrypted in database

I'm not sure if this question fits better in StackOverflowSE or CryptoSE but i think this is the right place. In an online community portal I want to save users' private messages encrypted in a ...
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moving from MD5 to SHA-512

This question is more of a security policy than a technical security question. Many years ago I developed an asp.net site, implemented Forms Authentication, and stored the user passwords as MD5 ...
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At what point does adding more iterations to PBKDF2 provide no extra security?

If my true passphrase is used only to generate a hash which is used as the cipher's actual key, doesn't that mean it's possible to try and brute force the cipher itself? I know it would take an ...
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What SSL key should I make for IIS: RSA or DH? What bit length is appropriate?

I'm creating an SSL cert for my IIS server and need to know when I should choose the Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic Provider or the Microsoft DH SChannel Cryptographic Provider. Question 1 Why ...
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zero knowledge proof and its protocol

In Zero-Knowledge Proof where we take the analogy of Peggy (Prover) and Victor (Verifier): In this story, Peggy has uncovered the secret word used to open a magic door in a cave. The cave is ...
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Most widespread use of PGP after 20 years

Phil Zimmerman released PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) on June 5, 1991. As we examine the legacy of that far-sighted and brave act 20 years later, what are the most widespread and helpful uses of PGP ...
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How do RSA fingerprints protect from MITM attacks?

I understand that RSA fingerprints are used to verify that you are really connecting directly to who you want to connect to, and not someone else posing as that site. Like when you do a git push, it ...
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HTTP Basic auth password storage more secure than Digest auth

If you are using SSL already, it appears Basic auth is the way to go since you can perform bcrypt with the password when you store it in the database, where as Digest auth only allows md5. As we know, ...
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Is there a way to negotiate a secret between 2 parties with no prior knowledge?

Is there a way for 2 parties to negotiate a shared secret (for example, a session key) without having a pre-shared knowledge? SSL does this by using asymmetric encryption. Is there any other way to ...
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Howto seed the PRNG in OpenSSL properly?

I am creating an application which runs on a mobile node with Ubuntu, which does not generate enough entropy bytes to the /dev/random, and does not always stay connected on the Internet to use typical ...
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How can I enumerate all the saved RSA keys in the Microsoft CSP?

I have an application that is creating several keys and storing them in various stores (in this case the Machine store). How can I enumerate all the keys on a given Windows system? ...