Encoding is a set of predefined rules to reversibly transform a piece of information in a certain representation into a completely different representation. The other way round is called decoding.

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HTML encoding to protect against XSS

While going through some references about protection against XSS i found that it is a good practice to encode data (entered by users) before using it to generate a dynamic page. I was not able to find ...
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Canonicalization & Output Encoding

I'm reading OWASP's Secure Coding Practices Checklist and under their "Input Validation" section they have an item that reads: If any potentially hazardous characters (<>"'%()&+\\'\") ...
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How was this token decoded?

I've read this interesting comment (about the security level, or lack thereof of some website built by a prominent chip manufacturer, an interesting discussion by it's own virtue, but not my question) ...