In computing, entropy is the randomness collected by an operating system or application for use in cryptography or other uses that require random data. This randomness is often collected from hardware sources, either pre-existing ones such as mouse movements or specially provided randomness ...

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Random padding in hash functions

In this answer, it was recommended that you add random padding when hashing messages for a trusted timestamp, such as for predictions, in order to avoid dictionary and brute force attacks (at least ...
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Pseudo Random Generator is not initialized from the (entropy pool)?

The RHEL5 manuals state that /dev/urandom will use the entropy pool until it's exhausted, and then it will resort to a fall-back pseudo-random algorithm, so that it will never block. But when ...
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How can I create a secure password?

I know the standard tricks, create a long password, numbers, symbols, capital letters, etc. My questions is how do I judge password security. I heard different tricks to make secure passwords. For ...
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754 views

Open-source alternative for CryptGenRandom?

Let's say that for some reason I don't trust CryptGenRandom. Are there any open source software Windows entropy collectors to get cryptographically secure random numbers from for seeding purposes? ...
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Does adding a non-entropic part to a password makes it less secure?

Suppose I'm encrypting a file via AES using a password of my choice, or creating a TrueCrypt volume using a password and no keyfiles. Which of the following two passwords would be more secure: ...
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/dev/random security holes

I'm doing some reading into the security issues surrounding /dev/random but it's proving to be hard to find good sources of information. Can anybody help? I've asked Google and got a bunch of articles ...
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VM production server and low entropy

I'm monitoring a VM functioning as our production server. I noticed it has at many times, quite low entropy (/proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail). On average our server(which among other stuff does ...
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443 views

Can the human brain generate cryptographically secure random numbers?

A security conscious friend of mine was attempting to generate entropy using random dice rolls to generate a random password, and I became curious about the security of random number generators and ...
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Password strength metrics

In the question Source code as password I suggested using a combination of entropy and as @Lawtonfogle put it 'meatspace difficulty'. As suggested in the xkcd comic correct staple horse battery is a ...
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Soundness of GRC.com Haystack padding concept [duplicate]

I was wondering how sound is the concept presented by the Gibson Research Corporation (see below if you do not want to follow the link) about simple passwords (= very easy to remember) with the ...
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How can you securely generate keys on AWS?

Our application needs to generate secure keys for long term storage on AWS using openssl. But I've seen some instance where entropy falls dangerously low on AWS machines and this doesn't appear to be ...
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163 views

/dev/random in EC2 cloud

is /dev/random any good in AWS EC2 for use in making a shared key that will be passed over a secure channel? i am concerned that a launched instance would have not much entropy to begin with. what ...
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320 views

What would the cryptographic impact be of knowing the output of /dev/urandom?

Another noob question, I know, but something I'm unsure about. If I somehow magically knew the output of /dev/urandom at any given time, how much would that weaken a given encryption system? Or, ...
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Computing entropy for a passphrase ( minimal word length … )

Edit: 2013-05-17 . 2013-05-27 After reading first answer from Tom Leek and some docs around the web, I've begin to write some options to my tool genpassphrase.pl: $ ./genpassphrase.pl -h Usage: ...
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Is it really “Time to add a word” if there are no tools to crack passphrases of 3 words and up?

It's "time to add a word" says Arnold Reinhold, the creator of Diceware, in his blog (3/2014). He advices to use 6 word sentences (or 5 words with one extra character chosen and placed at random) from ...
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1k views

How to generate cryptographically strong pseudorandom data very rapidly?

What's the best way to go about generating a fast stream of cryptographically strong pseudorandom data without installing uncommon packages? Drawing from /dev/urandom is far too slow. I had an idea ...
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Does manipulating a random password significantly reduce its entropy?

Suppose I generate a password using a secure random number generator and all the available character classes. For example, c.hK=~}~$Nc!]vFp9CgE. Consider that this password may need to be used in an ...
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How much time / “entropy collected” should generating a RSA 2048bit keypair take?

The purpose of my question is get an better idea about reasonable amout of time the generation of the RSA public/private keypair should take? To be less vague let me specify the question and define I ...
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446 views

How genuine are password entropy calculations?

I apologise for perhaps the confusing title, I'll try and elaborate a little better. Many discussions I see surrounding password entropy focus on the specific context of the range of choices ...
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181 views

Reliable random seed for RNG

I want to create my computer passwords with a RNG, but I am thinking about one thing: I would use python to write that script and the RNG is controlled by one seed, most likely the time. If I would ...
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PHP - Serializing user inputs

My entropy gathering system works by serializing user inputs: $entropy=sha1(microtime().$pepper.$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'].$_SERVER['REMOTE_PORT']. ...
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264 views

When changing a password, does it have to be completely different?

When changing a password how important is it to have a significantly different one? For example is it bad to reverse the sequencing of the old password to make a new one or change a few numbers?
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51 views

output from CryptGenRandom [closed]

Can we capture the output of Windows CryptGenRandom function. Suppose an application is utilizing CryptGenRandom, as a user can we know what is the Random Number generated and given to the ...
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What is the most efficient password scheme in terms of entropy per convenience [closed]

Although the main points are right, but now six words are needed, which is both inconvenient to remember, and inconvenient to type. My question is, has then been any case studies on the most ...
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Recompute Rainbow table with salt?

So, as I understand it, you prepend a password with salt before you hash it so that the resulting hash can't be used with a rainbow table to find the original password, as you could if the password ...
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4answers
488 views

If the attacker knows part of the password but not the length, does that help him in any way?

The idea behind this is that if knowing part of the password and not the length is useless, "passwords" can be easily stored in cleartext or paper since you would just add your own n characters ...
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is it feasible to improve the entropy of XKCD #936 by using a larger dictionary?

XKCD #936 uses a limited subset of the English language, only 2000 words. I just looked it up, and the English language has over a million words, a sizeable subset of those having special characters, ...
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261 views

How negative are virtual machines (vms) to /dev/urandom?

I looked at the questions here and here. This then piqued my interest as I've recently been involved with looking into FIPS compliance, and in my vm environment /dev/urandom compliance testing ...
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Usefulness of bcrypt(UUIDv4())

One of my colleagues is working on securing OAuth 2 client IDs and secrets for our OAuth server and he has come up with this scheme where he would not only use UUID v4 to generate random values, but ...
2
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522 views

Does client certificate authentication demand more server-side entropy?

We have a secure web service running Apache that requires client certificates for access. This service has a problem with running out of entropy. We have several other sites that use TLS that get ...
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141 views

How secure is a MD5 hash of an 128bit key

Apparently, for the Android KeyChain an encrypted master key is stored along the MD5 hash of the unencrypted Key. How secure is that? MD5 is known to have collisions, but I guess we can assume with an ...
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173 views

How secure are “pattern” passwords?

I was watching a TED Talk about password security recently which covers quite a few different types of passwords and compares how secure they are and how easy they can be remembered. One type of ...
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463 views

How secure is to seed PRNGs with the sequences from CSPRNG?

Background: Implementing online casino, I would like to use a number of PRNGs with high throughput, like MersenneTwisterFast. I know it is not cryptographically strong, but quite unpredictable when ...
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Evaluating the Entropy of the PRNG in OpenSSL

I've have a question on the PRNG in OpenSSL. I would like to understand how do you evaluate the diversity/entropy of the PRNG used in the OpenSSL (Cryptographic Library). If this is the wrong ...
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How to estimate the number of entropy bits & search space of a signature system like passtouch?

Apologies if I'm using the wrong lexicon, I'm just reading up about password systems out of interest. After seeing the xkcd strip on passphrases and coming across the passtouch system (youtube demo) ...
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General Entropy as opposed to Password Entropy [duplicate]

I know that the formula for the entropy of a message is: (I believe b can be set to 2) but when calculating the entropy of a password websites usually only compute log2(p-1), ignoring the first ...
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Passphrase generator and strength & recovery time estimator. Right strength and randomness?

Questions about the strength of pass phrases frequently popup, as does: how to generate a strong passphrase? I tried to combine both in a tool. The free tool also includes recovery time estimations ...
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How many bits of entropy should I aim at for my password? [closed]

I mainly use 2 passwords: 1 is a 4 word full lowercase passphrase of 18 letters long which I use wherever possible. The other is basically 3 words and a digit with the first word in full uppercase and ...
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651 views

Add a file as entropy source for /dev/random

What I have: A large file containing lots of secret, true-random bytes (yes, I'm sure they're not merely pseudo-random). I'll call it F. What I want to do: Tell Linux that it can use this file as an ...
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712 views

Password entropy match for alphanumeric but there are special characters in password

I have a problem cracking some of the fundamentals on passwords' entropies. Namely: I have read this article about a guy cracking DKIM of Google (maybe more noticing that the keys are only 512 bits) ...
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51 views

How to check randomness of a hash?

I have a REST api in which the server allots a unique token each time a user is logged in. Its a hash containing numbers,letters and a one or two special chars. I want to check the entropy of these ...
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206 views

Where does /dev/random get its entropy?

I read over and over about how /dev/random gets its entropy from "hardware events." What exactly are these hardware events and how can we be sure that it is random enough?
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How to keep a reasonable level of entropy in an encrypted file?

Encrypted (or random) data, by nature exhibit a high entropy value and non unencrypted data will exhibit a low entropy value. From an attacker point of view the precense of this high entropy value in ...
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Minimum SHA256'd UTF8 encoded passphrase length not stored anywhere

For a passphrase that is UTF8 encoded and then SHA256'd, what is the minimum length to achieve a practically collision free result? The implementation is for a 32 byte cryptocurrency ed25519 seed ...
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Evaluating a noise source for a RNG - defining a one-paramter family for RNG [closed]

I am trying to evaluate a noise-source as a means of providing entropy to a random number generator. I am running into trouble when it comes to determining the probability distribution that has the ...
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Using passwords made of words

People say don't use passwords in the dictionary but if you use two words isn't it alright? Dictionaries have at least 10,000 entries so just two words will be 100,000,000 possibilities (and that's ...
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242 views

What multiplier to use when calculating the average time to crack passwords with a given entropy?

Suppose that we have a process that generates passwords with entropy E. I'd like to compute the average time it would take for a brute-force attack to crack an MD5-hashed instance of such a password. ...
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Why is /dev/random so slow on Linux? [duplicate]

If it's true you only need about 128 bits of entropy to fuel enough data forever, why is it that /dev/random is so slow? My system has uptime of 214 days! Is it really only gathering .000000001 bits ...
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How strong is this encryption? [closed]

Given Dictionary containing 1000 three-letter words: dictionary=abc,def,ghi,jkl,mno,pqr... Randomly chosen words from the dictionary: 10-bits-passwords=abc,def,ghi Randomly chosen three words from ...
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Does adding an extra, non-entropic keyfile lower security? [duplicate]

Suppose I create two TrueCrypt volumes using keyfiles. The first volume uses a keyfile generated by TrueCrypt, whereas the second one uses the same keyfile in addition to a second, non-entropic ...