A hash algorithm is a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm tries to make it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inputs with the same output, or reconstruct the input from the output.

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Is it possible to get hacked if my bcrypt hash is publically known?

I just checked https://haveibeenpwned.com/ and I have noticed that I was pwned, therefore I checked the file that hosts the details of my "credentials", however, I see my email in plain text but the ...
3
votes
1answer
169 views

MD5 Algorithm: A basic explanation of the process

Could anyone please explain the basic idea and steps involved in the MD5 algorithm? I tried reading it on the web (Wikipedia etc.), but it was just too high level for me. So, can someone explain the ...
5
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1answer
377 views

self-signatures using SHA1

This page says: self-signatures must not use SHA1 You can check this by doing: gpg --export-options export-minimal --export <keyid> | gpg --list-packets |grep -A 2 signature|grep '...
6
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2answers
1k views

Can I use SHA-512 hash as AES key?

I want to combine hashing and encryption for better security. So can I use a hash key generated from SHA-512 as a key in AES. For example, I have a password "secret", I calculate SHA-512 hash for it ...
0
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0answers
142 views

HMAC Token - Check Logic

I have a situation where I need a token that provides authentication. The common HMAC procedure I found is: Get Some key using login credentials Create Message, append key and other message data (...
3
votes
1answer
142 views

What fuzzy hashing algorithms exist?

I have been trying to find information on fuzzy hashes, and I have found surprisingly little. I know that fuzzy hashes can be used to detect if a piece of malware has changed slightly. I would rather ...
6
votes
2answers
177 views

How is SHA-1 insecure if it is not vulnerable to what MD5 is?

I have been hearing a lot lately about how SHA-1 is no longer going to be used because of how weak and insecure it is, but if it is not vulnerable to collisions like MD5 is, then how is it weak and ...
17
votes
3answers
18k views

openssl: recover key and IV by passphrase

A large amount of files were encrypted by openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:MYPASSWORD Openssl should derive key+IV from passphrase. I'd like to know key+IV equivalent of that MYPASSWORD. Is ...
2
votes
1answer
109 views

Is storing encrypted and hashed versions of the same data less secure?

I have some database columns which are encrypted. Obviously there is no way to filter these by plaintext value. As the data stored in the db is ~~salted~~ combined with the IV, there is no way to ...
17
votes
5answers
29k views

SHA, RSA and the relation between them

SHA is the hashing mechanism. However, RSA is the encryption algorithm. So does RSA algorithm use SHA hashing mechanism to generate hashing keys which in turn is used to encrypt the message?? ...
2
votes
3answers
54 views

Pre-generating 'secure tokens'

In our web app we make good use of single use tokens. For example, when somebody creates any of the three "accounts", resets their password, or any other number of things that require random single-...
1
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2answers
73 views

How can i Identify and use hash function given enough text and their hash?

So, I have this old program currently in use, as i have access to the database i have adopted all data i need except the user passwords.. Now users will provide me with the plain text password and ...
7
votes
1answer
167 views

Increasing the Calculation Cost of Hashing [duplicate]

Is this a secure way to increase the calculation cost of md5 or sha1? public static byte[] increaseHashComplexityMd5(byte[] hash, int loops) { for(int loop = 1; loop <= loops; loop++) { ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

php's password_hash with system wide salt [duplicate]

I'm thinking about using password_hash function for generating password hashes. I have read that own salts shouldn't be generated and instead use the default one that the function generates. Own salts ...
32
votes
7answers
5k views

How to prevent username and password matches when changing a username?

Let's say that I have a system where one of the security requirements is preventing users from choosing a password that matches their username. Usernames are not case sensitive but the passwords are. ...
1
vote
3answers
120 views

Are hashing functions designed to be injective where the domain is limited to the codomain?

Using the example of md5, I would like to know if md5(h₀) == md5(h₁) for some distinct md5 hashes h₀, h₁. Are hashing algorithms generally designed to avoid this sort of collision? Do MD5, SHA1, ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Checking a salted hash against known password?

I've created a mysql dump of my users and passwords and awked them into a presentable form: Passwords: '...
3
votes
1answer
114 views

Can I generate a random 32 bit key by using the Java hashCode and random English words?

I want to generate and communicate a 32 bit key to Bob over a phone conversation. I know he happens to have the same Java and OS installed as I have. Suppose I have a dictionary of 100,000 (English) ...
3
votes
2answers
668 views

Getting reliable checksums

Update: A version of transmission that contains malware has been distributed very recently. Quoting this ars technica article: It appears that somehow the Transmission website may have been ...
3
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1answer
198 views

Is this encrypted information? Why is it in a URL?

There's a vendor who sends us reports full of links to articles. Some of these links, especially ones that perform what I'm guessing is an HTTP verb of some kind, look like this: https://...
1
vote
6answers
4k views

Is this authentication scheme secure?

I want to authenticate a client of a webpage and make sure it is a particular user. Let say that we already agreed on a particular hash (SHA256, actually, which I think is secure enough for this) and ...
5
votes
2answers
155 views

Why is weakness of SHA-1 considered a threat to TLS security

If I understand correctly the role that a hashing algorithm (e.g. SHA-1) plays in TLS certificates is as follows: The hashing function is applied to a subject's public key. The CA then uses their ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Is there a way to securely check if a password is one of the most used ones?

So lets's say that a user wants to register to some website. For whatever reason, I want to not allow that password if it is one of the top 100 passwords used on my site (So I'm not checking against ...
298
votes
8answers
57k views

How to store salt?

Nowadays, if we expect to store user password securely, we need at least do the following thing $pwd=hash(hash($password) + salt) then store $pwd in your system instead of the real password. I have ...
-4
votes
2answers
121 views

How to identify this hash?

I have one hash, I know its value, but not its type. Here is it: 6dfb036bf703d75f9bc8219ba1224d876783fa61 I tried something like php -r "echo sha1('abc');", but it gave me another value, so this ...
0
votes
2answers
112 views

Password based Asymmetric Key generation

I am looking for a password based key derivation scheme that results in an asymmetric key pair. I have worked with PBKDF and its variants but could not come up with any way of generating a key pair. I ...
45
votes
4answers
5k views

Is this a self rolled hashing/obfuscation method? Can you recognize the pattern?

A system we're introducing into the organization is not using any traditional hashing function that I can find. I've been assigned to "approve" it by black-box testing. I suspect passwords are simply ...
2
votes
1answer
157 views

How might a PIN based Web authentication scheme work?

I'm interested in implementing PIN based authentication for a web application, similar to what Facebook provides in their mobile web site. Here is the user flow: User visits the site for the first ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

How can I store a password history to prevent reuse?

I have an application with a user database. The database stores the password using a bcrypt hash with a randomized salt. How can I implement a password history set (to prevent password reuse) in a ...
5
votes
2answers
212 views

Why use MD4 for caching?

ccache is a popular tool for speeding recompilation with GCC and other compilers. It works by caching previous compilations and detecting when the same compilation is done again. The detection is ...
5
votes
1answer
5k views

Rainbow tables/hash tables versus WPA/WPA2

In Wi-Fi penetration testing, is it possible to use rainbow tables/hash tables on WPA/WPA2 networks? Is there an advantage of one over the other? ...
-2
votes
2answers
56 views

Is there a reason to salt instead of enxrypting data? [duplicate]

Is it more secure to: a) Take a password, salt it, then hash it. b) Take a password, hash it, then encrypt it(Using a symmetric algorithm with a large key)
18
votes
4answers
4k views

Have weaknesses in SHA-1 and MD5 ever actually been successfully used in an attack?

Pretty much every guide, how-to, and reference for dealing with passwords and hashing has a warning in big or bold letters stating something along the lines of: SHA-1 and MD5 are NOT secure and ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

If multiple users on the same website all use the same password, is their password hash the same? [duplicate]

My basic knowledge would assume yes, unless websites somehow include the user name into the hashing function with the password, but I am not sure if this is common practice.
2
votes
3answers
67 views

Why do websites use less effective hash functions? [duplicate]

When releasing, say, ISO files, the websites usually provide the supposed hash of the ISO to compare with, to verify its integrity. Or, to prove that it at least probably wasn't tampered with. But on ...
175
votes
8answers
39k views

Why are salted hashes more secure for password storage?

I know there are many discussions on salted hashes, and I understand that the purpose is to make it impossible to build a rainbow table of all possible hashes (generally up to 7 characters). My ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

How can I ensure that only the message I sent, and nothing else reaches the receiver?

How do I make sure that the open channel I use to send a message to a specific receiver, is not used by a third party to send unwanted files and compromise the receivers system? Is there a method by ...
157
votes
11answers
59k views

Why are hash functions one way? If I know the algorithm, why can't I calculate the input from it?

Why can't a password hash be reverse engineered? I've looked into this ages ago and have read lots on it, but I can't find the explanation of why it can't be done. An example will make it easier to ...
1
vote
3answers
126 views

Signatures for an antivirus

When anti-virus software compares an MD5 signature for malware, does it execute the malware on my computer in order to generate the appropriate signature to compare against? [ORIGINAL QUESTION] MD5 ...
2
votes
3answers
264 views

Parameters for PBKDF2 for password hashing

I use PBKDF2 with SHA-256 to store hashes of passwords. I use the following parameters: number of iterations desired = 1024 length of the salt in bytes = 16 length of the derived key ...
12
votes
2answers
4k views

Estimating the size of a rainbow table

What are rainbow tables and how are they used? Gives a very precise answer about what rainbow tables are and how they are used. I had always confused hash-tables and rainbow tables. My question is ...
0
votes
3answers
99 views

How does encryption force a processor to “pause”?

I'm often told that encryption forces processors to "make a pause" when performing the math to decrypt a hash, which is why brute forcing can take so long. I don't understand what it means for a ...
25
votes
4answers
7k views

Why are MD5 and SHA-1 still used for checksums and certificates if they are called broken?

I was just reading about SSL/TLS stuff, and according to this site (which is rated as A by Qualys SSL Labs), MD5 is totally broken, and SHA-1 is cryptographically weak since 2005. And yet, I noticed ...
36
votes
15answers
7k views

Why do people think that this is bad way to hash passwords?

Well, please tell me, what's wrong with this code: $password = "hello"; $password = md5($password); for($i=1;$i<20;$i++){ $password = md5($password); } It's exactly the same as this one: ...
5
votes
2answers
155 views

Why are we using SHA3-512?

As we know, hash algorithms can be used for authenticity of a message. In my understanding, since the message lengths are too large, we convert it into a hash value using hash algorithms and these ...
1
vote
0answers
118 views

Can password hashing both client side and on the back end improve security if we don't necessarily trust the server? [duplicate]

I want to know if it ever makes sense to hash a password client side and rehash it again on the back end. I've not seen this done before which makes me suspicious as to whether it really does add ...
0
votes
2answers
255 views

Breaking encryption with hash value of password?

Can you break an encrypted volume if you know the source code of the crypto-tool used and the hash value of the secret passphrase? Why is it not possible to just reverse engineer the passphrase ...
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2answers
6k views

Is AES slower to encrypt than MD5?

Is this the right interperation of this diagram: http://www.cryptopp.com/benchmarks.html AES/CCM MiB/Second:61 Cycles Per Byte:28.6 MD5 MiB/Second:255 Cycles Per Byte:6.8 And does that ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Is encryption with a destroyed key a good cryptographic hash function? [duplicate]

Obviously this isn't something I was going to implement, but it was a question floating at the back of my mind. So let's say that instead of hashing passwords to store in the database, you encrypt ...
20
votes
6answers
5k views

What is a good practical (and sane) way to manage all your passwords for online sites?

I am just a mere mortal that wants to have a somewhat secure way of managing all my passwords. This is something that I have been putting off, but since LinkedIn decided to give away one of my ...