a random number that is only used once. It is generated at the beginning of a communication by one communication partner and has to be sent back by the other one in order to prevent replay attacks.

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how to test for csrf if the web application is not using tokens and there are no users defined for that application?

I am testing an application that doesn't use anti-csrf tokens for its requests. There are no users defined for this application as well. Well, in that case, how to carry out testing for csrf in this ...
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3rd Party Authentication protocol

I have a hardware device (H), phone (P) and web server (S). I would like P to be able to send commands to H but only if it is authorized to do so. Permissions are stored on server. Technically I could ...
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RPC Service Authentication using Server and Client Nonce

Forgive my ignorance, security is not my field. I have a RPC server where the server keeps a protected file containing user names and corresponding passwords. I would like to securely authenticate ...