OpenSSL is an open-source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols.

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What do the dots and pluses mean when OpenSSL generates keys?

When OpenSSL generates keys you'll always see a series of periods/dots (.) and pluses (+). openssl dhparam -text -noout -outform PEM -5 2048 ...
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Different AES 256 algorithms produce different results?

I've tried 3 AES 256-bit CBC encryption programs, and I seem to be getting different results for each one with the same 32-character password, which consists of all @ signs. They are: Polaris SSL ...
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How to authenticate to racoon with a certificate chain if only the root CA is known

I'm trying to setup IPsec using x509 certificates on Linux. I'm using racoon for that task. I've come to the point where the authentication works fine if I keep every link of the certificate chain on ...
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OpenSSL PKCS#7 vs. S/MIME

OpenSSL 1.0.1c onwards seems to offer CMS support. I have difficulty understanding the difference between smime and pkcs7. S/MIME specs are layered on PKCS#7 (so says Wikipedia). Now in openssl I ...
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2answers
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Public Key → Certificate?

Is it possible to convert a public key to a certificate using the public key only? I've seen the following, which takes a private key to form a cert request, which can then be self-signed: openssl ...
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Are there any risk in serving static assets via compressed SSL protocol from 3rd party domain?

e.g. curl -v -H 'Accept-Encoding: gzip' 'https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/Colors.js/1.2.2/colors.min.js' As you can see, result is gzipped. My assumption is since they are serving from 3rd ...
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OpenSSL generates 1032bits when I request 1024bits

When I enter the command-line openssl dhparam -text 1024 the resulting safe-prime is 1032 bits instead of 1024 bits. It seems like the 1st byte is always 0. Why is this?
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OpenSSL, x509: what is the correct way to picture signing authorities?

For the purposes of creating a VPN, I can't find a logical explanation of OpenSSL's/x509 scheme. I'm royally confused about these three terms, Certificate Authorities Gateway certificates End-point ...
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OpenSSL, x509: what's the significance of CN (Common Name)?

With regard to these three items Certificate Authorities (CA) Gateway certificates End-point Certificates (client-cert) What is the significance of the Common Name CN with regard to the a VPN? ...
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How to get a 'million rounds of PKCS#8 + PBKDF2' with OpenSSL?

I posted this question Is a passphrase-protected SSH private key susceptible to a dictionary attack? a few days back. An excerpt from the final answer: With PKCS#8 + PBKDF2 and one million ...
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1answer
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Getting “SSL: alert [”write“]: fatal : bad record mac” during openssl Handshake

I am getting SSL: alert ["write"]: fatal : bad record mac from the OPENSSL logs during the handshake and Client is not sending the Application data and its creating the handshake again and again. ...
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Public keys on OpenSSL vs PGP?

It is my understanding that PGP permits multiple public keys, and in SSL you can only extract one public key? Is this correct? Is there any brief high level run down between the two. I don't feel as ...
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Generate CSR with 2 OU Names

I have to create an application which generates a CSR. While generating a CSR we are required to fill in several details like CN, OU, etc. The problem is that the Certifying Authority to which I have ...
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stronger encryption for SSH keys

I configured my server to encrypt user passwords using 500,000 rounds of SHA-512. The question is, how does the standard AES-128-CBC encrypted SSH private key stack up to that, provided the same (or ...
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2answers
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OpenSSL dgst authentication failure

I've tried to replicate the workflow presented on this blog in OpenSSL: http://farid.hajji.name/blog/2009/07/27/public-key-cryptography-with-openssl/ However, authentication seems to fail despite ...
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1answer
291 views

Openssl speed block size

I dont really get it what exactly block size in openssl speed output means. Here: How can I interpret openssl speed output? I found the answer that it is the length of the input message. So, should I ...
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SSL/TLS - Distinction between self-signed cert and self-signed CA, and other questions?

I have a small personal website which I wish to serve securely over HTTPS. At the moment I do not wish to use a third party CA to sign my certs. I was reading this document on generating a self-signed ...
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2answers
760 views

What to do with expired certificates as a CA?

This and this answer says that "once a certificate has expired, the CA ceases to keep track of its revocation status". I'm trying to learn how OpenSSL works as a CA. If I have a revoked expired ...
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Why does OpenSSL need the private key to revoke a certificate?

openssl ca -revoke signed/0A.pem -config caconfig.cnf What does this do which requires the CA's private key? Does it do anything except updating index.txt?
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How can I interpret openssl speed output?

I ran openssl speed on my Ubuntu computer. Some results: Doing md4 for 3s on 16 size blocks: 9063888 md4's in 3.00s Doing md4 for 3s on 64 size blocks: 7105157 md4's in 3.00s Doing md4 for 3s on 256 ...
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Can someone explain a little better what exactly is accomplished by generation of DH parameters?

I'm setting up a node.js server: https.createServer({ ... ciphers: 'ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:AES128-GCM-SHA256:RC4:HIGH:!MD5:!aNULL:!EDH', honorCipherOrder: true }, app).listen(443); ...
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Why can't a AES256-encrypted file be decrypted on machine other than the one it was encrypted? [closed]

I encrypted a file on my mac using openssl openssl aes-256-cbc -a -salt -in one.jpg -out two.jpg now if I try to decrypt it like that: openssl aes-256-cbc -a -d -salt -in two.jpg -out one.jpg on ...
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FIPS Compliance for my Android project

I am working on a security-related project and have to make sure it is FIPS 140-2 compliant. According to my understanding, FIPS compliance is compliance at hardware as well as software level. ...
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Generating session CSRF token based on SSL session ID

Following situation: Application is only accessible via HTTPS/SPDY nginx is sending the SSL session ID to the upstream server Upon session start I'd like to use the first 128 characters of that ...
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Force a subordinate CA cert to be signed to include a the CRL distribution point extension?

How can I attach a crlDistributionPoints parameter when signing a CSR I've generated as follows: openssl req -new -key /root/ca/private/private.key -out /root/public.csr I usually sign with: ...
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How to use public key in ~/.ssh for asymmetrical encryption with OpenSSL

I want to do an asymmetrical file encryption: openssl genrsa -des3 -out private.key 4096 openssl rsa -in private.key -pubout -out public.key openssl rsautl -encrypt -pubin -inkey public.key -in a ...
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Decrypt from cipher text encrypted using RSA

I am sniffing a client side application traffic and I found some encrypted data. I am not able to decrypt it. Information which I have is Public Key: ...
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Decrypting TLS in Wireshark when using DHE_RSA ciphersuites

How can I decrypt TLS messages when an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman ciphersuite is used? I am able to expose the premaster secret and master secret from the SSL Client. Using that, how to decrypt the ...
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What is the difference between SSL and X.509 Certificates?

I used openssl to create a X.509 certificate but I don't quite understand the relationship between a X.509 and a SSL certificate. Are they the same? Is a SSL certificate just a X.509 certificate that ...
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1answer
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Different performance of openssl speed on the same hardware with AES 256 (EVP and non EVP API)

If I run openssl 1.0.1e like this : $ ./openssl speed aes-256-cbc (i.e without EVP API) Doing aes-256 cbc for 3s on 16 size blocks: 14388425 aes-256 cbc's in 3.00s Doing aes-256 cbc for 3s on 64 size ...
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OpenSSL vs FIPS enabled OpenSSL

A deceptively simple question. How does OpenSSL compare to FIPS enabled OpenSSL? Is it any less secure? How do I tell? If I were concerned about security, not the NIST standard, is there any real ...
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657 views

Is OpenSSL AES GCM standardized?

I have been reading about the perils of not going the pages of my own encrypt-then-mac implementation, because there so many things can go awry. So decided to use EVP_aes_256_gcm. But some questions ...
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openssl EVP_aes_256_gcm - what's inside?

I have been reading about encrypting and authentication. Traveled the path from home made authentication to encrypt-then-mac approach and finally settled on GCM mode. I am curious what resided inside ...
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SSL Cert Types and Key Usage

I want to use OpenSSL to create a CSR and submit it to my CA (which uses Microsoft PKI) and receive certificates that can be used for both Server Auth and Client Auth. I'm not clear on a couple of ...
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Using SSL on my sites for everything or just some things? [duplicate]

I have a server which provides a few services through the web, some of those services must be logged into to be able to use them. For these services I have implemented SSL using level 3 CACert ...
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1answer
491 views

How to open a .txt.enc file?

I have a .txt.enc file. It is an output of openssl enc. I need to open it. When I try to open it in Emacs, the first some characters(also known characters) are : 'Salted__C' . how can I understand ...
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Could I delete .csr files when the key is signed by CA

I'm creating my own openvpn server. The Certificate authority is located on a separated host. There is two kind of clients: which that just send a .csr and to which i send the .crt as an answer and ...
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Converting keys between openssl and openssh

If I use the following openssl req -x509 -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout private.pem -out public.pem -nodes I get private.pem and public.pem If I use ssh-keygen -t rsa -f rsa I get rsa and ...
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2answers
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how to specify only the named curve in CSR request?

I am trying to send a CSR to a server and it is successfully signed when generated from the command line but fails with a (0 length ASN.1) error when generated programatically. I suspect, perhaps, its ...
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Are private keys generated by different software packages compatible?

I know that GnuPG follows the OpenPGP standard, but if I generate a public/private key pair using GnuPG and upload the public key to a key server, i.e. the one at MIT, or use it to sign files, ...
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How to set “Not Before” value to past when creating certificate request

We have lots of embedded TLS clients on the field. TLS Servers must be authenticated. Because long power cuts may reset clock of those devices, we have requirement to use certificates with validity ...
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2answers
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File security when encrypting files directly with the openssl command / and what about SHA1 hashing password first?

I've been using this command to encrypt files for a while now: openssl aes-256-cbc -a -salt -in secrets.txt -out secrets.txt.enc Then I type in a password. Can someone tell me, roughly speaking, ...
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How configure tomcat 7 SSL to use AES-NI?

My server has AES-NI and I would like tomcat 7 to make use of this but I am not really sure how to make that happen or where to even start looking. I am quite familiar with tomcat administration, and ...
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What is the difference between `extendedKeyUsage` and an application policy?

In some Microsoft articles like http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc731792%28v=ws.10%29.aspx, I find some confusing statements like Application policies are sometimes called extended key ...
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Why does OpenSSL not include AES-256-GCM? [closed]

I'm trying to implement AES-256-GCM in Ruby. Ruby's OpenSSL wrapper library and aead library both clearly seem to believe that OpenSSL itself supports this. However, neither 0.9.8r (which I had ...
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Which extensions to use for a S/MIME certificate?

Analogously to the SSL server certificate question, which extensions should I use for S/MIME, and should the CA be restricted somehow as well? (I'm using openssl, which at the moment creates CA and ...
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What are the differences between ssh generated keys(ssh-keygen) and OpenSSL keys (PEM)and what is more secure for ssh remote login?

I have learned there are 2 methods to make SSH remote login easier and secure , those are; ssh generated keys (using ssh-keygen)OpenSSH Keys PEM (.pem) keys usually generated with OpenSSL (Amazon ...
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2answers
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Generating private key from hex string with openssl

Is there a quick way to take a set of numbers and encode it as a private key with openssl command line? Inventing the CLI interface openssl genpkey -fromhex 'FFFFFFFFF' -algorithm RSA edit: of ...
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Why does openssl writes EC parameters when generating private key?

When I'm generating a private key with openssl, it writes the curve's parameters, and the actual private key: ❯ openssl ecparam -name secp256k1 -genkey -----BEGIN EC PARAMETERS----- BgUrgQQACg== ...
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openssl: recover key and IV by passphrase

A large amount of files were encrypted by openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:MYPASSWORD Openssl should derive key+IV from passphrase. I'd like to know key+IV equivalent of that MYPASSWORD. Is ...