OpenSSL is an open-source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

44
votes
1answer
7k views

What should end-users do about Heartbleed?

What should one do about the Heartbleed OpenSSL exploit? mainly talks about what people running websites should do about Heartbleed. What should end-users of websites be doing? Do they need to ...
181
votes
1answer
57k views

How exactly does the OpenSSL TLS heartbeat (Heartbleed) exploit work?

I've been hearing more about the OpenSSL Heartbleed attack, which exploits some flaw in the heartbeat step of TLS. If you haven't heard of it, it allows people to: Steal OpenSSL private keys Steal ...
108
votes
5answers
55k views

What should a website operator do about the Heartbleed OpenSSL exploit?

CVE-2014-0160 http://heartbleed.com This is supposed to be a canonical question on dealing with the Heartbeat exploit. I run an Apache web server with OpenSSL, as well as a few other utilities ...
55
votes
2answers
21k views

Does the heartbleed vulnerability affect clients as severely?

If I have a web crawler (using a non-patched version of OpenSSL) that can be coaxed to connect to an evil https-site, can they get everything from my process memory? To attack a server you can keep ...
195
votes
11answers
30k views

How to explain Heartbleed without technical terms?

Most of my friends who are not experienced in computers want to know what Heartbleed is and how it works. How would one explain Heartbleed to someone without a technical background?
57
votes
4answers
25k views

Does Heartbleed mean new certificates for every SSL server?

If you haven't heard of the Heartbleed Bug, it's something to take a look at immediately. It essentially means that an attacker can exploit a vulnerability in many versions of OpenSSL to be able to ...
171
votes
4answers
37k views

SSL3 “POODLE” Vulnerability

Canonical question regarding the recently disclosed padding oracle vulnerability in SSL v3. Other identical or significantly similar questions should be closed as a duplicate of this one. What ...
58
votes
3answers
6k views

Heartbleed: Why does the client supply the length of the message at all?

"The fix for this bug is simple: check that the length of the message actually matches the length of the incoming request." Why do we even have the client report the length at all? If we can know ...
19
votes
2answers
6k views

Can Heartbleed be used to obtain memory from other processes?

According to http://heartbleed.com/, memory contents can be leaked from the server to the client and vice versa. Say that I have been banking in a separate browser profile (but under the same user). ...
27
votes
6answers
17k views

Heartbleed and Routers/ASAs/other

OK, so I first heard about heartbleed a few hours ago through the stack exchange questions feed, and after a moments panic, realised that the only web servers I have secured via OpenSSL are on the ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Extensions for SSL server certificate

I have some question about the X.509 v3 extensions. What extensions should appear in a proper certificate for a SSL server ?
7
votes
3answers
4k views

Can someone explain a little better what exactly is accomplished by generation of DH parameters?

I'm setting up a node.js server: https.createServer({ ... ciphers: 'ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:AES128-GCM-SHA256:RC4:HIGH:!MD5:!aNULL:!EDH', honorCipherOrder: true }, app).listen(443); ...
10
votes
2answers
6k views

Decrypting TLS in Wireshark when using DHE_RSA ciphersuites

How can I decrypt TLS messages when an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman ciphersuite is used? I am able to expose the premaster secret and master secret from the SSL Client. Using that, how to decrypt the ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Does Heartbleed affect servers if OpenSSL was only used to generate the certificate?

I built an application that generates certificate signing requests (CSRs) using the PHP OpenSSL module. Is there a way that the HeartBleed bug can affect these (in use) private keys and CSRs that ...
4
votes
2answers
350 views

Are there any known Heartbleed attacks?

Are there any known instances of malicious security breeches exploiting the Heartbleed vulnerability? Or is there at present only a known vulnerability, albeit a very serious one?
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Which extensions to use for a S/MIME certificate?

Analogously to the SSL server certificate question, which extensions should I use for S/MIME, and should the CA be restricted somehow as well? (I'm using openssl, which at the moment creates CA and ...
1
vote
3answers
178 views

What part of the CSR is hashed in order to create its signature?

I'd like to change the CSR before it is transferred to the CA without going through the CSR creation process again. To do that I need to know how to calculate the signature of the CSR after I modified ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

OpenSSL PKCS#7 vs. S/MIME

OpenSSL 1.0.1c onwards seems to offer CMS support. I have difficulty understanding the difference between smime and pkcs7. S/MIME specs are layered on PKCS#7 (so says Wikipedia). Now in openssl I ...
16
votes
2answers
4k views

stronger encryption for SSH keys

I configured my server to encrypt user passwords using 500,000 rounds of SHA-512. The question is, how does the standard AES-128-CBC encrypted SSH private key stack up to that, provided the same (or ...
7
votes
3answers
17k views

Converting keys between openssl and openssh

If I use the following openssl req -x509 -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout private.pem -out public.pem -nodes I get private.pem and public.pem If I use ssh-keygen -t rsa -f rsa I get rsa and ...
5
votes
2answers
6k views

openssl: recover key and IV by passphrase

A large amount of files were encrypted by openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:MYPASSWORD Openssl should derive key+IV from passphrase. I'd like to know key+IV equivalent of that MYPASSWORD. Is ...
9
votes
1answer
974 views

Heartbleed how to find out applications using statically compiled version of openssl?

We're analysing issue at work and I wondering how to find out if there's any binary with a statically compiled version of openssl which includes this bug. Would it be possible to find a fingerprint ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Could I delete .csr files when the key is signed by CA

I'm creating my own openvpn server. The Certificate authority is located on a separated host. There is two kind of clients: which that just send a .csr and to which i send the .crt as an answer and ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

Why OpenSSL can't use /dev/random directly?

I couldn't find the answer for the reason anywhere, even the wiki page doesn't explain it. This seems like using a PRNG for seeding an another PRNG. The first one (/dev/random) may itself be seeded by ...
8
votes
1answer
710 views

How to get a 'million rounds of PKCS#8 + PBKDF2' with OpenSSL?

I posted this question Is a passphrase-protected SSH private key susceptible to a dictionary attack? a few days back. An excerpt from the final answer: With PKCS#8 + PBKDF2 and one million ...
3
votes
2answers
210 views

Heartbleed and heap management - Why user data and passwords are kept in memory?

If I understand correctly the hearbleed vulnerability, only the heap of the OpenSSL process can be retrieved by an attacker (or part of depending on the memory allocation type that is used). Then, how ...
2
votes
1answer
490 views

What is the difference between `extendedKeyUsage` and an application policy?

In some Microsoft articles like http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc731792%28v=ws.10%29.aspx, I find some confusing statements like Application policies are sometimes called extended key ...
1
vote
2answers
858 views

What is the difference between Diffie Hellman generator 2 and 5?

Generating Diffie Hellman parameters in OpenSSL can be done as follows: $ openssl dhparam -out dh2048.pem 2048 Generating DH parameters, 2048 bit long safe prime, generator 2 This is going to take a ...
5
votes
3answers
322 views

Why does OpenSSL need the private key to revoke a certificate?

openssl ca -revoke signed/0A.pem -config caconfig.cnf What does this do which requires the CA's private key? Does it do anything except updating index.txt?
4
votes
2answers
985 views

How to create an Apple Installer Package Signing Certificate

How can we create a certificate with the following Extended Key Usage extension using OpenSSL? Extended Key Usage extension, critical, with a purpose containing Developer ID Installer Package Code ...
4
votes
1answer
9k views

How do I create a valid email certificate for Outlook S/MIME with openssl?

I need to create a certificate for email encryption and signing that has to be used by Outlook 2003+. I'm using OpenSSL, my self-signed root-CA is already imported into the trusted root-CA store. ...
3
votes
2answers
324 views

Why is a CSR hashed?

What are the use cases for defining something other than the default SHA1 hash in a CSR? Is it to protect the digital signature, public/private keys? What is it protecting exactly?
3
votes
2answers
474 views

How can I interpret openssl speed output?

I ran openssl speed on my Ubuntu computer. Some results: Doing md4 for 3s on 16 size blocks: 9063888 md4's in 3.00s Doing md4 for 3s on 64 size blocks: 7105157 md4's in 3.00s Doing md4 for 3s on 256 ...
1
vote
1answer
199 views

Risks associated with distributing encrypted private key with our software?

Our software contains two executables that need to serve data over SSL (and several that need to do requests over HTTPS)). I notice that it is distributed with some .PEM files created with OpenSSL. ...
1
vote
1answer
208 views

Generate CSR with 2 OU Names

I have to create an application which generates a CSR. While generating a CSR we are required to fill in several details like CN, OU, etc. The problem is that the Certifying Authority to which I have ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

NSS / OpenSSL tradeoff on an embedded linux application which uses a TPM via pkcs11?

I am on a trade-off between the use of OpenSSL or NSS in an embedded Linux application that makes use of a TPM (HSM). EDIT: I need a SSH server and Apache using TLS, both using the keys protected by ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Which browsers are using openssl

It is asked in stackoverflow, but I suppose maybe it is more suitable to ask here. It is said that openssl are widely used, however, as far as I know, the most popular browsers seem not use openssl, ...