SSH (Secure shell) is a protocol for secure communication between computers to execute remote commands, transfer data and tunnel TCP connections.

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What's the difference between authorized_keys and authorized_keys2 [on hold]

For many years I have used ~/.ssh/authorized_keys2 file to store my public ssh key on the servers, sincd they are set up to use ssh version 2. I just found out that there is a nifty tool that ...
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SSH and shared secrets

There was a question on a quiz I took, about different authentication methods that SSH uses. The answers were combintions of the following four: username/password public key authentication shared ...
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How can I Run my Kali Tools on a Remote Server [migrated]

I am currently ssh-ed into a remote server. However, I do not have root permissions on the remote server and therefore am unable to install and use tools such as nmap. I've been trying to figure out ...
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60 views

Is Certificate-Based Authentication Really Better Than Password Authentication in OpenSSH?

I recently set myself up with a VPS and have been hardening it to the greatest extent of my limited knowledge! I was configuring OpenSSH to use certificate based authentication when something did not ...
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1answer
118 views

Key's random art image is mostly black

I have generated an SSH key on Ubuntu 10.04 with ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "example@example.com" and the key's random art image comes out mostly empty (modified slightly): +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | ...
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67 views

PCI DSS 3.0 - Is restricting SSH and/or RDP outbound required?

This question comes up a lot as I do evaluations for different customers. I currently recommend the following: All outbound SSH & RDP blocked by default from user network (non-CDE) All outbound ...
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2answers
592 views

What role does clock synchronization play in SSL communcation

We've recently implemented WS Trust security over SSL for our client / server communications. Our application is used by thousands of our customers, spread out all over the world. One of the ...
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183 views

SSH key auth, but still need password for sudo?

SSH with public-private key authentication comes enabled by default with most Linux distributions. This is great because when I create accounts for remote users I don't have to email them sensitive ...
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1answer
87 views

What is the impact of RSA key's size on CPU load?

I use ssh connection encrypted and compressed. If I use small RSA keys or very big RSA keys, what is impact on CPU load for compression, for decompression and on bandwidth (encrypted file size) ?
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How to mitigate the risk of X forwarding?

I want to use X forwarding in my work because some tasks are just easier with GUI. I trust the administrators not to be malicious, but I don't trust their competence in security (almost nil). Hence ...
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1answer
49 views

Shall I set “RSAAuthentication yes” in sshd_config if I use only ECDSA key?

In a context of proprietary client boxes and servers, I want to limit authentication to ECDSA keys. Historically, "RSAAuthentication yes" was used to enable authentication with RSA and maybe DSA keys. ...
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SSH server: What's more secure, pub key auth or Google Authenticator time-based auth?

I'm curious which would be more secure, pub key authentication or 2-factor auth via Google Authenticator. Apparently I can't use both. If I have pub key authentication, the Google Auth PAM module ...
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1answer
82 views

How does Putty derive the encryption key in its .ppk format?

I have been doing some reading on the mechanics of managing RSA key pairs, during which I learned that OpenSSL by default derives the encryption key by using MD5 on the passphrase (bad!) without any ...
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1answer
41 views

SSH key passphrase update and multiply locations

I have a ssh key which I use to upload code to github. the private key is located on several locations from where I upload/download data. I wonder how can I update (or expire) old keys after I update ...
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1answer
35 views

User-friendly public/private manual authentication protocol

I have a remote service which allows users to SSH login to the machine and they're automatically sent to the (command line) application (without access to a bash prompt, for instance). In the course ...
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Is it possible to retrieve SSH v2 credentials in a username/password authentication scheme?

I'm currently analysing a compromised network(root access has been gained to a workstation and logs show that it has been used for port scanning and service brute forcing attacks on the remaining ...
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1answer
31 views

Difference between sshv1 and 1.5?

I've been searching for the answer to this but haven't had much luck. What is the difference between SSH version 1 and 1.5? Is 1.5 a release of 1? As in 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5? Are there any ...
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3answers
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Why is using SSH key more secure than using passwords?

If people use password to log in to a UNIX server, then it could be forced to expire the password, then they change it. If people use ssh key and have no passwords, no password expirity, then ...
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2answers
79 views

OTP vs. Keyfile

I have been wondering what are the benefits and cons of using an OTP (one time password) versus a keyfile to, for example, decrypt a keepass database, connect to a server via SSH, or other uses. ...
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NISTIR 7966 (Security of Automated Access Management Using Secure Shell) - is there anything new?

Tatu Ylönen (the creator of SSH protocol) and two others authored a report recently, offering their views on SSH key management. I have read the report, and am struggling to identify whether it is ...
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Yubikeys & SSH - which option is best for lockdown?

My company has a few dozen servers hosted on a cloud provider. All but one (OpenVPN host) is closed to the internet. We're using OpenVPN AS which uses certs + Google Authenticator for login. We are ...
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1answer
34 views

Period and direction of risk when connecting to malicious webserver

Please forgive my terminology mishaps. Recently, I tried to connect to a server over SFTP. The SSH public key response differed by 1 byte to what I was expecting, from an info page. I was tempted to ...
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2answers
368 views

Pros/Cons to OpenVPN vs “VPN over OpenSSH”

What are the major differences between using OpenVPN and using VPN over OpenSSH? Does adding a virtual tunnel interface to a SSH connection offer the same benefits of OpenVPN? Can PuTTY be used on ...
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How does the ShellShock exploit work over OpenSSH?

The three options listed in the CERT release (AcceptEnv TERM and SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND) are all server-side options. If none of these are set on a host (and no http vector is available) is the host ...
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1answer
89 views

Is limiting access to a web script with .htaccess secure enough when that script can run arbitrary commands?

Okay, so I don't have much HTML experience, but I recently started working on a project with a group of people that involves regularly manipulating files in a web server. I would like to work on this ...
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Using SSH Private keys in Production environment

I have a need to scp a bunch of files from a production box to my development environment. I am a developer and have limited read access to the production machines. Instead of entering password for ...
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111 views

Why does ssh `known_hosts` file need server name?

When I push/pull repos on GitHub over SSH, sometimes there will a message about unidentified server and asks if I want to trust and add it to known_hosts. Apparently this is because GitHub has ...
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132 views

How common is port-knocking? [closed]

Today I read about port-knocking for the first time. It has been a pretty known concept for more than ten years, but I don't know anybody who uses it for their servers. How common is the usage of ...
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4answers
997 views

Why secure encrypted data consistency by strong hashing?

Consider the SSH protocol: the SSH packet is like [data, SHA1(data)]. The packet is entirely encrypted by a block cipher. The question is, why do we need a strong hash to protect the packet ...
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166 views

SFTP between guest virtual machine and its host

The System I am using Windows 7 host with Cygwin and a virtual machine running Linux. The actual running guest is an Arch Linux ISO. The Objective I want to share files between the Cygwin host and ...
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2answers
122 views

Receiving sensitive data uploaded on a Web server, and remotely accessing it without exposing it to theft

Edit: I mostly used my university's guidelines on how to meet DPA standards and their own. I extrapolated a bit because encryption on a VM hosted by my uni that is already probably encrypted makes ...
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121 views

Does public key auth in SSH prevent most MITM attacks?

I found this article that claims asymmetric crypto signature of DH-obtained key prevents MITM: http://www.gremwell.com/ssh-mitm-public-key-authentication Key idea: The value of 'signature' is a ...
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Expiration / enforce change of passphrase for private ssh keys

Out of curiosity, and also to check whether this is doable at all: Is there any way using standard tools to assign an expiry date [only] to the passphrase of an ssh private key, or to enforce the ...
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Is it wrong to root login with SSH?

I've long been under the impression that with unix, you should never login as root. Now I've started using Virtual Private Servers over at DigitalOcean, and some advice is to use SSH keys to login as ...
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SSH web server good practises [duplicate]

Is it risky to open the SSH service on a web server (even with a strong password or with RSA keys) ? What are good practises to connect to a web server for maintenance ? Thank you !
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What are the risks associated with SSH'in from corporate LAN to untrusted server on the Internet

At work (a huge organisation) I found a server on the LAN that opens SFTP connections to 2 servers across the Internet. I assume the remote hosts are in the other parties DMZ. I know you are not ...
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106 views

What to do about ssh breakin attempts [duplicate]

Our system used to get bombarded by bots trying to login to the ssh client on the standard port. After switching to another port number the failed login attempts basically stopped completely. ...
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92 views

Do SSH private keys always contain enough information to derive a public key?

I am working on a persistence model for SSH Private keys. The technology used is Java. Since the persistence structure of the public and private keys is pretty similar and using some of the Java APIs ...
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93 views

How to transfer securely a file between servers?

Let's say I have two Linux servers. One containing a desktop app database (running on a local network) and a webserver. I want to automatically transfer each hour a database file (with a size of a ...
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387 views

ssh always too many authentication failures

No matter on which server I try to connect via password login, I always get the error message Too many authentication failures for If I have exchanged the ssh-keys, I can login without password as ...
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96 views

Should I use the root account on my Digital Ocean server?

I have set up an SSH key with Digital Ocean that is automatically added to any servers I create. Is it okay to use this root account for SFTP and daily use or should I create another user account and ...
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82 views

Is my ssh server safe because I use DenyHosts and don't allow root access?

I am by no means an expert in online security so I wanted to outline the steps I am taking to remain as safe as possible yet still make it as easy as possible to gain access to my system from anywhere ...
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1answer
151 views

TrustWave PCI Compliance - OpenSSH

First time 'asker' on here, but wanted to say thanks to how much I've used this site and reading answers to questions I've had! Anyway, lately I've been having issues with a customer of ours who's ...
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223 views

How should I defend against zero-day attack on SSH?

Vulnerabilities are discovered everyday. The recent Heart bleed attack caught many people off guard. I was wondering if a serious flaw was to be discovered that allows unfettered access to SSH, how ...
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71 views

Find the location of a hidden host

I'm doing a penetration test for a client who wants me to try and target a specific server. I have managed to get credentials(hard-coded in an in-house app) to a limited account on this server that ...
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2answers
430 views

Is it not safe to open MySQL's port to the internet?

The consensus on this Server Fault question seems to be that opening port 3306 for MySQL is more dangerous than using an SSH tunnel to access MySQL. I would think that with strong credentials you ...
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340 views

How can I make a read-only filesystem read/write?

I recently hacked into my router which runs BusyBox v1.9.1. I want to edit some files in my web GUI interface which will allow me to get hidden options in it. I'm trying to edit a .js file and replace ...
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58 views

Disable all SSH security mechanisms for a private subnet

So I'm running a private subnet where there is no internet connectivity, I understand the grave danger of running an ssh server on the internet without security. In short I would like to be able to ...
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2answers
142 views

Using given RSA private key without the associated public key

I'm currently following a small game to get more familar with linux and security and got the following task: The password for the next level is stored in /etc/bandit_pass/bandit14 and can only be ...
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What are the security issues of a MITM on an ssh session with rsa keypair

If a user connects to an SSH server using an rsa private key, but does not confirm the server's fingerprint. What kind of information can a man in the middle attack get from the session?