481
votes
23answers
88k views

XKCD #936: Short complex password, or long dictionary passphrase?

How accurate is this XKCD comic from August 10, 2011? I've always been an advocate of long rather than complex passwords, but most security people (at least the ones that I've talked to) are ...
362
votes
18answers
45k views

How can I explain SQL injection without technical jargon?

I need to explain SQL injection to someone without technical training or experience. Can you suggest any approaches that have worked well?
321
votes
3answers
114k views

How does SSL work?

How does SSL work? I just realised we don't actually have a definitive answer here, and it's something worth covering. I'd like to see details in terms of: A high level description of the protocol. ...
280
votes
13answers
45k views

What technical reasons are there to have low maximum password lengths?

I have always wondered why so many websites have very firm restrictions on password length (exactly 8 characters, up to 8 characters, etc). These tend to be banks or other sites I actually care about ...
264
votes
10answers
44k views

Is it bad practice to use your real name online?

On some accounts I use my real name on-line (Google+/Facebook/Wikipedia/personal blog), others (Q&A/Gaming) I use an alias. My question is: Security and privacy wise, what can people do with my ...
257
votes
13answers
52k views

Are passwords stored in memory safe?

I just realized that, in any language, when you save a password in a variable, it is stored as plain text in the memory. I think the OS does its job and forbids processes from accessing each other's ...
244
votes
18answers
36k views

How does changing your password every 90 days increase security?

Where I work I'm forced to change my password every 90 days. This security measure has been in place in many organizations for as long as I can remember. Is there a specific security vulnerability ...
236
votes
10answers
27k views

Is my developer's home-brew password security right or wrong, and why?

A developer, let's call him 'Dave', insists on using home-brew scripts for password security. See Dave's proposal below. His team spent months adopting an industry standard protocol using Bcrypt. ...
231
votes
4answers
65k views

Do any security experts recommend bcrypt for password storage?

On the surface bcrypt, an 11 year old security algorithm designed for hashing passwords by Niels Provos and David Mazieres, which is based on the initialization function used in the NIST approved ...
227
votes
22answers
290k views

I found that the company I work for is putting a backdoor into mobile phones

I have found out recently that the remote assistant software that we put in a smartphone we sell can be activated by us without user approval. We are not using this option, and it is probably there ...
212
votes
12answers
33k views

How to securely hash passwords?

If I hash passwords before storing them in my database, is that sufficient to prevent them being recovered by anyone? I should point out that this relates only to retrieval directly from the ...
185
votes
3answers
41k views

CRIME - How to beat the BEAST successor?

With the advent of CRIME, BEAST's successor, what possible protection is available for an individual and/or system owner in order to protect themselves and their users against this new attack on TLS?
180
votes
11answers
26k views

How to explain Heartbleed without technical terms?

Most of my friends who are not experienced in computers want to know what Heartbleed is and how it works. How would one explain Heartbleed to someone without a technical background?
177
votes
19answers
40k views

How can someone go off-web, and anonymise themselves after a life online?

With data mining tools like Maltego and other correlation tools for large data sets, if we conduct any transactions online assume that these can all be collated to build a good picture of what we do, ...
175
votes
8answers
15k views

How is it possible that people observing an HTTPS connection being established wouldn't know how to decrypt it?

I've often heard it said that if you're logging in to a website - a bank, GMail, whatever - via HTTPS, that the information you transmit is safe from snooping by 3rd parties. I've always been a little ...
173
votes
1answer
42k views

How exactly does the OpenSSL TLS heartbeat (Heartbleed) exploit work?

I've been hearing more about the OpenSSL Heartbleed attack, which exploits some flaw in the heartbeat step of TLS. If you haven't heard of it, it allows people to: Steal OpenSSL private keys Steal ...
160
votes
17answers
10k views

Passwords Being Sent in Clear Text Due to Users' Mistake in Typing it in the Username Field

Upon reviewing the Logs generated by different SIEMs (Splunk, HP Logger Trial and the AlienVault platform’s SIEM) I noticed that for some reason quite a few users tend to make the mistake of typing ...
158
votes
6answers
16k views

How to store salt?

Nowadays, if we expect to store user password securely, we need at least do the following thing $pwd=hash(hash($password) + salt) then store $pwd in your system instead of the real password. I have ...
151
votes
8answers
63k views

Why not use larger cipher keys?

RSA Security commonly uses keys of sizes 1024-bit, 2048-bit or even 3072-bit. And most Symmetric algorithms only between 112-bit and 256-bit. I do realize that the current keys are secure enough for ...
149
votes
7answers
106k views

RSA vs. DSA for SSH authentication keys

When generating SSH authentication keys on a Unix/Linux system with ssh-keygen, you're given the choice of creating a RSA or DSA key pair (using -t type). What is the difference between RSA and DSA ...
140
votes
12answers
24k views

How is an ATM secure?

I'm curious why an ATM computer is considered secure. The general adage of "If an attacker has physical access to my machine, all bets are off," seems to not apply in this circumstance (since ...
140
votes
2answers
13k views

Don't understand how my mum's Gmail account was hacked

My mum (on Gmail, using Chrome) received an email from a friend's Hotmail address. She opened the email (very obviously a phishing email) and clicked a link in it. This opened a webpage with loads of ...
138
votes
7answers
23k views

CTRL+ALT+DEL Login - Rationale behind it?

Maybe a rather noobish question: Why is CTRL+ALT+DEL required at login on Windows systems (I have not seen it elsewhere, but contradict me if I'm wrong) before the password can be typed in? From a ...
138
votes
7answers
10k views

How do certification authorities store their private root keys?

Knowledge of a CA private key would allow MitM attackers to transparently supplant any certificates signed by that private key. It would also allow cyber criminals to start forging their own trusted ...
132
votes
7answers
24k views

What are the implications of NSA surveillance on the average internet user?

It would appear as though the tinfoil hat-wearing were vindicated today, as news broke of the true scale of the U.S. government's surveillance of its citizens' online activities, conducted primarily ...
129
votes
5answers
17k views

Why are chips safer than magnetic stripes?

After the recent Target hack there has been talk about moving from credit cards with magnetic stripes to cards with a chip. In what ways are chips safer than stripes?
118
votes
9answers
14k views

Is Adblock (Plus) a security risk?

My email-provider's website (http://www.gmx.de) recently started linking to the (German) site http://www.browsersicherheit.info/ which basically claims that due to its capabilities to modify a site's ...
114
votes
10answers
9k views

What alternatives are there when SSH is being actively filtered?

Unfortunately our government filters the SSH protocol so now we can't connect to our Linux server. They do the filtering by checking the header of each packet in the network layer (and not by just ...
113
votes
16answers
9k views

What should I do when my boss asks me to fabricate audit log data?

My boss just asked me to create a fictitious log entry to say that a user's account was updated before it was, to win a dispute. I feel this is not right because I am trying to start a career in ...
109
votes
5answers
9k views

Does Facebook store plain-text passwords?

I was about to reset my Facebook password and got this error: Your new password is too similar to your current password. Please try another password. I assumed that Facebook stores only password ...
107
votes
5answers
51k views

What should a website operator do about the Heartbleed OpenSSL exploit?

CVE-2014-0160 http://heartbleed.com This is supposed to be a canonical question on dealing with the Heartbeat exploit. I run an Apache web server with OpenSSL, as well as a few other utilities ...
106
votes
9answers
11k views

Is Google spying on all of us?

I am curious because, I experienced something bizarre recently. About a month ago, someone asked me to find out a price for a T-shirt printing machine, and probably for the first time, I pressed these ...
106
votes
8answers
10k views

Are “man in the middle” attacks extremely rare?

In http://cdixon.org/2012/02/12/the-iphone-contact-list-controversy-and-app-security/ Chris Dixon makes a statement about web security Many commentators have suggested that a primary security ...
100
votes
4answers
29k views

How does the authentication in the new UK £1 coin work?

The UK is getting a new £1 coin. Its designers, the Royal Mint, claim that unlike current coins, it includes built in technology for high speed authentication and verification everywhere from ATMs to ...
95
votes
7answers
5k views

Is it acceptable that a skilled professional pentester deletes or modifies sensitive data in production unintentionally during a pentest?

Today I experienced a situation where a person responsible for the security of a company required a pentesting company to withdraw a clause in the contract that says that: "during the pentest there ...
95
votes
8answers
4k views

Attacking an office printer?

I did an nmap scan on an advanced office printer that has a domain name and is accessible from outside the corporate network. Surprisingly I found many open ports like http:80, https:443, and ...
94
votes
7answers
6k views

Why are salted hashes more secure?

I know there are many discussions on salted hashes, and I understand that the purpose is to make it impossible to build a rainbow table of all possible hashes (generally up to 7 characters). My ...
93
votes
11answers
20k views

Why are hash functions one way? If I know the algorithm, why can't I calculate the input from it?

Why can't a password hash be reverse engineered? I've looked into this ages ago and have read lots on it, but I can't find the explanation of why it can't be done. An example will make it easier to ...
85
votes
9answers
38k views

Why can we still crack snapchat photos in 12 lines of Ruby?

Just came across this bit of ruby that can be used to decrypt snapchat photos taken out of the cache on a phone, apparently adapted from here. To my surprise, it worked no problem, considering the ...
84
votes
13answers
7k views

Why do we lock our computers?

It's common knowledge that if somebody has physical access to your machine they can do whatever they want with it1. So why do we always lock our computers? If somebody has physical access to my ...
84
votes
10answers
6k views

Why is blog spam always written so badly?

Some spam messages fresh from my Wordpress filter: Asking questions are in fact pleasant thing if you are not understanding something totally, except this article gives good understanding yet. ...
83
votes
15answers
13k views

What “hacking” competitions/challenges exist? [closed]

I have always enjoyed trying to gain access to things I'm not really supposed to play around with. I found Hack This Site a long time ago and I learned a lot from it. The issue I have with HTS is that ...
82
votes
12answers
20k views

Why is it difficult to catch “Anonymous” or “Lulzsec” (groups)?

I'm not security literate, and if I was, I probably wouldn't be asking this question. As a regular tech news follower, I'm really surprised by the outrage of Anonymous (hacker group), but as a ...
81
votes
16answers
4k views

At what point does something count as 'security through obscurity'?

So, I keep finding the conventional wisdom that 'security through obscurity is no security at all', but I'm having the (perhaps stupid) problem of being unable to tell exactly when something is 'good ...
80
votes
7answers
6k views

How can I protect my internet-connected devices from discovery by Shodan?

There's been a lot of buzz around this recent CNN article about Shodan, a search engine that can find and allow access to unsecured internet-connected devices. Shodan runs 24/7 and collects ...
79
votes
9answers
9k views

How can PayPal spoof emails so easily to say it comes from someone else?

When I receive a payment in PayPal, it sends me an email about it (pictured below). The problem is that the email is shown to be coming from the money sender's email address and not from PayPal ...
78
votes
8answers
5k views

Do we need to logout of webapps?

A quick Google search doesn't reveal whether it is important to logout of webapps (online banking, Amazon, Facebook, etc.), or if I am safe just closing the tab or browser. I am sure I heard on some ...
76
votes
7answers
4k views

Is social-engineering an actual threat

I've recently finished book The Art of Deception: Controlling the Human Element of Security by Kevin Mitnick The book was released on 4th December 2002. Not talking only about techniques described ...
75
votes
12answers
11k views

How can I punish a hacker?

I am a small business owner. My website was recently hacked, although no damage was done; non-sensitive data was stolen and some backdoor shells were uploaded. Since then, I have deleted the shells, ...
75
votes
7answers
4k views

How do I know a piece of software only does what the author claims?

Without being a programmer or a computer expert, how can I know if a particular program or any piece of software in general doesn't have hidden unwanted functions compromising privacy and security?

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