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DAC -> When the owner of the file/information decides the access control flags for that file. Chmod operation is an example of the implementation of the DAC. MAC-> When the clearance level of the subject and the classification of the object are taken into consideration. For access grant Clearance>=Classification. You should read about the Bell-laPadula and ...


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Having no crossdomain.xml means that a Flash application can't make a request to your website in the first place - so if you do not have one that is more locked down already than including one. Unless of course you're allowing users to upload their own crossdomain.xml files? Additionally crossdomain.xml won't prevent a SWF file that loads from your domain ...


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Discretionary access is what you grant to someone who has a need to know something you do. Mandatory access is what you can't grant to someone who doesn't have the right to material in your category (say, atom bombs) at the level of the information they want (say, top secret). --dave


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I think that you are asking if you need to protect yourself in case the impossible (or at least highly unlikely) occurs. I believe that a crossdomain.xml is only involved when a client is directed to load content from the non-originating server. So adding a strict crossdomain.xml file will protect you against that. But the crossdomain.xml won't protect ...


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It's very hard to be have assurance there is no malware present on your server. There are indicators of compromise, but considering you probably didn't log anything remotely and did not have controls in place to prevent unauthorized alteration, it's very hard to rely on your system. Some recommendations (from the perspective that you are on a very limited ...


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Here's three solutions: Have a limited number of one-time-use recovery codes which the user is instructed to print and store in a physically secure location. This is essentially a substitute for "something you have" as it's unlikely the user will remember any of the codes. This is the approach used by Google. Use transitive trust, this works if you know ...


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What level is it aimed at? Beginner? How much have you been taught on the course? Easy: Set up a listening netcat on port 4444 with a bash shell on it. (netcat -lvp 4444 -e /bin/bash) The way for the attacker to find this would be by using nmap to scan all the open ports. Medium: Use a "known vulnerable" bit of software listening on a port. Older versions ...


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Backdoor for what? Future network exploitation or privilege escalation from the console? why not put a password and a shell on some system account that nobody will notice -- for example change /etc/passwd: from: news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/usr/sbin/nologin to: news:x:9:9:news:/var/spool/news:/bin/bash and sudo passwd news Don't make news a ...


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Setup proper 802.1X authentication / WPA-Enterprise to connect to the network. So each client will have their own credentials and they'll be logged accordingly. VPN could also be set up in the same manner if you need remote access. All of these protocols are designed with security in mind and thus inherently prevents any form of MITM attacks if implemented ...


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If you want to ensure you have your employees taking to you, and not some third party, you need to create a set of keys you distribute securely, and the tool you use depends on both ends having keys. Some few VPNs may do that, but not many. I think ssh can do so.



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