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For "symmetric cryptographic algorithms" (symmetric encryption, MAC...), things are simple: a non-broken cryptographic algorithm is such that it uses an n-bit key, and the fastest method to find the key is trying out all possible keys until the right one is found (that is called exhaustive search or brute force). The algorithm is said "non-broken" precisely ...


Well, first of, the number of files in the project Gutenberg, though vast by human standards, is really small for a computer, so it is workable to simply try them all. Apart from that remark, non-random pad data implies biases. If both the plaintext and the pad are "natural language texts", then the question becomes: given m XOR m', where both m and m' are ...

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