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10

This is enough, or not, depending on the disk technology, the budget of the attacker, and some other details. When you fill a disk with zeros, you force the filesystem to reuse free blocks, and rewrite them. So, as first order approximation, this looks good for you: your file contents are overwritten. However, there are details: On some operating systems ...


9

There are any number of different ways it can be done. In large part, the easiest way is following the link pointers to each of the chunks, but that isn't the only way by any means. (The MFT isn't the only source of those links in many file systems as well.) At a lower level, it can identify all the chunks and try to match some of them up on content if the ...


8

Unlikely. It's AES-CBC-128, so there's no chance of you cracking the key. There are a few tools (e.g. Volatility, or Elcomsoft's forensics suite) that can recover the master key from a system memory dump, but that only works if the drive is already mounted and unlocked.


7

What you describe is the worst possible practice possible apart from just handing it over. From a security standpoint it poses significant risks to both the previous and current parties. The easiest way to reformat PCs is to use what is called a "golden image" this image is a windows image you: keep up to date only install the bare minimum of programs ...


6

If you use sdelete from Microsoft (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897443.aspx) you don't have to install anything. It has an option to fill the unused disk space with zeroes too. If you already deleted the files this is what I'd just to make sure that nothing remains of the original file.


6

How does the Recycle Bin work? When you delete a file from a hard drive the file is moved to a folder named $Recycle.Bin on the same drive. So when you delete the file D:\Work_Files\SuperWeirdPr0n.mp4 it's actually moved to D:\$Recycle.Bin. How does that apply to TrueCrypt volumes? Well, pretty much the same. When you send a file from a mounted encrypted ...


6

The best citation I can give is from Overwriting Hard Drive Data: The Great Wiping Controversy, which was published as part of the 4th International Conference on Information Systems Security, ICISS 2008. You can view the full text of the paper by viewing the book on Google Books, and jumping to page 243. The following excerpt is from their conclusion: ...


6

The best cryptographers use cryptography only when necessary. That being said, this proposed design is needlessly complex. Your design incorporates two different hash functions, symmetric and asymmetric encryption. Further more you make no mention of what attacks you are trying prevent, which leads to a superstitious design that is difficult to ...


5

The virtual machine usually stores its virtual hard disk as a normal file on the host operating system's filesystem. Think of a filesystem like a warehouse. The warehouse contains a large number of boxes (files) and a manifest that lists all of the boxes (the file table). When you delete a file, it doesn't actually destroy the data, it just deletes the ...


5

First check with your legal expert if there are any laws in your country which require you to have a minimum retention period. For instance depending on your industry you might have to take into account either of these regulations: Sarbanes-Oxley regulations: To comply with SOX guidelines, companies must retain auditable emails for a minimum of five years ...


4

Many TPMs will allow a backup to be stored of the key either prior to loading it on to the TPM or via some kind of export. As long as you have the key, you can reload it on a new TPM if the TPM fries. I actually had this exact thing happen with an IBM ThinkPad with an early TPM where the TPM circuit fried and I had to replace the system board. I was ...


4

A forensic tool such as FTK imager, is essentially a binary data reader and interpreter. Oversimplified, it reads each value and shows you both the hexidecimal (or decimal) absolute value and/or the interpreted value (such as text). Google for more examples and explanations of how FTK imager works. Notice that a forensic toolkit is merely a tool. Most ...


3

When you are using a HDD; writing filling it all up over and over again and changing file format and operating system and than filling it up over and over would help you. It is actually said that changing the OS and changing the file format (NFST to FAT32 etc) makes revocery pretty hard. And if you fill it up with newer data and do these practices in a ...


3

In NTFS, all of the metadata is stored in the MFT. This includes names, dates, parent folder, etc. the occupied clusters are also stored in there in a structure called data runs. The clusters storing the file data hold only file data and there is no linked list that holds info about the next or previous cluster. When a file is deleted (assuming a skip of ...


3

A first method is to open up the old hard disk, and extract the platters. Hard drives are usually closed with screws, so it can be unscrewed; beware, though, that it is customary for hard disk vendors to hide the screws under stickers (a disk is sealed and letting the air in can kill it, so vendors want to prevent inquisitive customers from unknowingly ...


3

It depends. If you want to delete every trace of the file, it is more complex than overwriting sectors. Depending on which file system you are using, but if e.g. NTFS: even if you fill all free space, there can be things left behind in the MFT, journaling areas, etc. If it is a very small file, the entire file can be contained in the MFT, etc Also, ...


3

This question has been asked before, see here. The quick answer is that you're better off using a data shredding tool rather than trying to use encryption.


3

If you want to destroy all data on your disk, why not use a file shredding tool? There are plenty of them available, and it is a lot easier solution that creating a truecrypt volume and then deleting that volume. I also don't know how truecrypt initializes volumes. It is possible that truecrypt writes random data to the volume only once, while file ...


2

If settings are default (ie, not using reversible encryption for password storage), then the user would have to log in to decrypt. In fact, if the user was ever to have their password administratively changed, then the files would become unrecoverable as the key would be lost.


2

TrueCrypt encrypts the whole volume, as a big bag of sectors. TrueCrypt does not know what a "file" is, it sees only sectors. It protects your data against people who steal your disk but do not know the password. The operating system manages the sectors, using some of them as metadata to describe directories and usage of other sectors for containing pieces ...


2

I've had experience with forensic software that ignores the filesystem logic and just greps the disk image for byte patterns that correspond to common file headers or specific file contents. i.e. search for all JPEGs or search for files containing the word "hello". That is one way of recovering "deleted" files.


2

The aluminium coating of the CD reacts and creates plasma. So it burns the CD effectively. Below you can see the image of a microwaved CD. It's safe to say it's been destroyed.


1

Nope. Symetric keys must be random. If you want to make the key recoverable, store it somewhere, or use some other recovery option. But don't generate it using some predictable algorithm or the whole system falls apart. Storing the key is far safer than generating it using a predictable system. Because when someone knows your system, then they have all the ...


1

I've had numerous discussions with forensic analysts and security IT folk, and the general consensus is that DoD wiping your drives is sufficient to destroy your data. Smashing a hard drive may be fun and cathartic, but from the research I've done, not necessary in many cases. DoD wipe your devices and then take it to an e-waste recycling facility.


1

No. Adding 0s to the hard drive is easily recoverable (with a special machine). It is not If you really want to reuse a hard drive in a safe way I recommend you using the "shred" utility in linux or any other similar utility. Let's say that simply writing once over a hard disk is not enough to make the hard drive truly forget about the data that was ...


1

In addition to Lucas's answer above, you might want to start with prying the various EEPROMs off the motherboard, and reflash them with the latest firmware downloaded and verified from the manufacturers' website before soldering them back. These steps would make sure there is no persistent malicious firmware present in the box before it is shipped to the ...


1

I'd implement either disk replacement, disk circulation, or secure disk wiping, depending on your resources/time constraints. If possible, I'd take the large datacenter approach, and just remove and replace the disks, ideally destroying those that come out. Given that these will be fairly entry level machines, I'd say it would be easy to incorporate the ...


1

You can't be guaranteed that your file will be deleted successfully just by trying to overwrite it with other files. You don't have any say over what sectors get written with data. Your deleted file will stay on the hard drive until the OS determines that it needs to write over those sectors. So the short answer is no. Sdelete is a sysinternals tool that ...


1

The only way to really guarantee that data cannot be recovered is (a) use full-disk encryption, so all sensitive data is already encrypted before it hits the media, and then (b) destroy the encryption key when you no longer want the data on that media. spinning disks Yes, a single zero-fill, on a spinning disk, is adequate. Civilian data recovery ...



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