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The ChaCha20 algorithm is simple enough that if you're curious about how it works you could just write your own implementation (but don't use it in production!). RFC 7539 is a simple reference that also comes with examples so you can easily check for correctness as you go along. But the way it works is that you XOR the message with a keystream that is ...


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The four ring system was designed by Intel for anyone to use, and Microsoft chose a scheme to simplify development work and provide a faster OS at the cost of some security. As far as Microsoft is concerned, they haven't been phased out, so much as they were never used to begin with. Microsoft didn't ask Intel to make a two ring system; Intel provided a four ...


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RAM, while stored in "blocks" for virtual memory purposes, is really just a chaotic storage area of random bits of data for applications. In fact, the data in memory can be moved around several places without the program even knowing about it. For example, it might end up moving to a different bank, or stored to the hard drive, or a flash drive, or (as of ...


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In this case, the program will only store the plain text password in RAM (Random Access Memory). From this, it will then encrypt it, usually with AES, and write it to the permanent storage. RAM memory is not permanent, as soon as the power of the computer goes out, the entire RAM is cleared. Meaning that even if it was not written over as soon as the power ...


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Stealing data from the memory is definitely easier than stealing it from an encrypted file. You can take a dump of your memory and then scan it to search the password. On a side note, I believe the bigger risk here is that there is a very simple mapping between the seed and the password. Also, the seeds seem to be predictable. Once that is compromised, do ...


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Yes, the principle and impact is the same. One of the specific properties of Rowhammer is that it is affecting nearby memory rows only (hence the name rowhammer). This makes establishing non-destructive attacks a challenge.



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