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A list of the various tests used are provided in the mmap documentation at http://nmap.org/book/osdetect-methods.html#osdetect-probes-seq. For more specific details you'll have to read the source code. Essentially various different probe packets are sent and the results analysed. Slight differences between TCP/IP software mean there are sometimes slight ...


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Heuristically. nmap observes the behaviour of the system during probes, develops a "fingerprint", which analagous to a real fingerprint test, looks mainly for the minutiae: out of specification behaviour and extra-specification or undefined behaviour retransmission times response to fragmentation and various ICMP probes patterns in TCP sequence numbers, IP ...


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On software encryption vs hardware encryption, read this comparison on Kingston's website, and your choice may be easy, but this is marketing language. I'm quite sure that Open Source software encryption like GPG is more secure. See this question: Is hardware based disk encryption more secure that software based?. The basic question is: from who do you ...



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