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Whether it comes from the original distributor, you know only when you're checking with signify. By calculating the image's checksum on your own computer and comparing it to the original checksum, you can verify the image has not been corrupted, during your download. More it says not. Secure browser connections can be intercepted and decrypted by ...


The direction of stack growth is hardware dependent. On x86 architectures, it grows downward, but it may be different on other architectures.


The "rings" nomenclature (0-3) you usually see these days started with the requested privilege level field in segment selectors as part of the design of x86 protected mode. Back in the day, it was possible to make exclusive sections of the memory space called segments. In "real mode" it was necessary since you only had 20-bit addressable memory. When ...


Ring -1 is the hypervisor, implemented as Intel VT-x ("Vanderpool") [Wikipedia] or AMD-V ("Pacifica") [Wikipedia].


As I understand it, around 1992, Pres. Bush issued an Executive Order requiring the US Gov to standardize on the Win OS platform, Microsoft Word processor and the Adobe PDF. Not sure if that is still in effect, but probably is. It was much needed at the time but is probably bad now.


Joanna Rutkowska, leader of the Qubes project, does a great job into documenting the concepts on which Qubes is relying. I therefore strongly suggest you to get the information at the source, and in particular to read the two following documents: Software compartmentalization vs. physical separation (Or why Qubes OS is more than just a random collection of ...


In theory, Qubes would be more secure as it's running fewer services by default. No network discovery, file sharing, etc, so less probability for any of those to get remotely exploited. It also benefits from being open source as well as being a niche OS, which means there's less malware targeting it. In reality though, unless you have reasons to believe you ...

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