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A recent thing to add here which probably is relevant to the question is that Landauer's Principle might not actually hold up: http://phys.org/news/2016-07-refutes-famous-physical.html They measured the amount of energy dissipated during the operation of an "OR" gate (that is clearly a logically irreversible gate) and showed that the logic operation ...


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Although I very much like @thomas-pornin's answer, I think there's a problem with the first assumption that must be called out. Laundauer's Principle only applies to irreversible operations. Contrary to what some may assume, reversible computing is already achievable. The operations are common in quantum computers and homomorphic encryption systems. ...



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