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I am surprised that people haven't noted that you can and should encrypt the verifier in the db. Typically with large firms the databases are segregated infrastructure. The backup regime of the database servers is also usually deliberately different than the host level backups of the applications servers and web infrastructure. Db backups are usually offsite ...


Proxy, Adaptable Security Appliance, DMZ, and Automated Vulnerability Scanners are some items you'll find in the wild that are hardware. There's plenty more security related software items that will help you with research such as Splunk which takes logs and makes them searchable.


There are few other choices. If software is inherently insecure, all you can do is to replace it with something that isn't; or wrap it up in a condom of some sort. Host-based systems require programs to be invasively, and cooperatively, installed on every client (virus scanners, local network stack IPS). Network-based systems don't require cooperation ...


I don't think you can look at connections and, by inspecting the packets, determine that a VPN is in use. VPNs are meant to look like regular connections. The only solution I know of is one that blacklists IP addresses belonging to known VPN providers. That can be used effectively though it is a bit of an arms race as VPN providers try to get new addresses ...

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