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You've evolved to mostly right, but to add several points and expand on @CoverosGene more than I felt comfortable doing in an edit: X.509 defines a certificate (and some other things not relevant here) in ASN.1, a (very!) general data structuring method which has several defined encodings, of which DER Distinguished Encoding Representation is quite common ...


PKCS #7 can be thought of as a format that allows multiple certificates to be bundled together, either DER- or PEM- encoded, and may include certificates and certificate revocation lists (CRLs). Per RFC2315, PKCS#7 is a general syntax for data that may have cryptography applied to it, such as digital signatures and digital envelopes. The syntax admits ...

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