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I believe U2F changed their specification from using raw USB communication to using USB-HID communication. I am no expert in USB communication, but I believe the Yubikey lack of backward compatibility is either : not being able to implement both USB protocols at once. a hardware limitation.


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Hardware crypto modules like this are regulated by a set of standards called FIPS 140-2 which specify the ridiculous lengths that the devices must go to in order to protect the private keys inside them. There are four levels of FIPS 140-2, briefly summarized as: Level 1: It does basic crypto-y things. Level 2: "Tamper-evident"; it's impossible to extract ...


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Well "impossible" is impossible to prove which is why in the linked answer I said "almost impossible", maybe even that is overstating it. By using a secure hardware device the attack vector goes from "malware installed remotely on host steals secret," to "attacker needs to physically gain access to the hardware device and destructively remove the private ...



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