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comment How to find live hosts on my network?
nmap -PR -sn will perform an ARP sweep of the network. NMAP's website has detailed information on nmap host discovery. I highly recommend you use this as a reference.
comment Why wouldn't the reverse shell connect back using the same port that exploited the server?
There is a metasploit payload module called linux/x86/shell_find_port that does exactly what you're describing. It takes the client's source port as an option, which it then later uses to search memory for a sockaddr_in structure belonging to the client with the same port number. However, I've had more luck with this payload in the past: link. It uses a neat trick with the dup, dup2, and execve system calls to create a one-way shell. That's provided your target is linux, of course!
comment How can I execute a XSS with these conditions?
@Quentin: there are plenty of other ways to get around that like <img src=somethingWrong onerror=alert('hi')>. HTML is really flexible and the possibilities for getting around naive anti-XSS implementations are endless.
comment Maltego transform samples
As for the raw data types this might be a space that might need some improvement in Canari. There is some support for some of the primitives like String, Integer, Float, Enums, etc. in Canari. Take a look at the canari.maltego.entities package in the project to see how they come into play. I will have to add support for the other stuff. That stuff is still unknown and might be a good side-project :)