3 replaced http://stackoverflow.com/ with https://stackoverflow.com/

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintextthen it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?

2 replaced http://i.stack.imgur.com/ with https://i.stack.imgur.com/

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?

Post Locked by Community
Post Migrated Away to crypto.stackexchange.com by Jeff Ferland
Post Closed as "off topic" by Jeff Ferland
1

# Why, or when, to use an Initialization Vector?

i'm trying to figure out when an Intialization Vector (IV) should be used.

There are anecdotal reports that WEP was broken because of weak IV's. It's also claimed that if two pieces of plaintext are encrypted with the same Key+IV, then it's trivial to recover the plaintext.

To test this, i've encrypted two pieces of equal length plaintext using the same IV and Key. i am using AES, which has a 128-bit block size (16 bytes), so i will make my sample plaintexts less than 16 bytes.

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
``````

Now the theory is that `C1 ⊻ C2 = P1 ⊻ P2`:

So i calculate `Ciphertext1 xor Ciphertext2`:

``````Ciphertext1: ba 81 1b c3 d1 6b ee bd 0a 87 23 33 04 90 5d 8a
Ciphertext2: b0 80 01 ed e8 2c 6c 60 17 b7 5d 60 37 9a e8 3d
XOR:         0A 01 1A 2E 39 47 82 DD 1D 30 7E 53 33 0A B5 B7
``````

Now, for comparison, the XOR of the two (15 byte) plaintexts together is:

``````Plaintext  XOR: 03 0C 1E 1F 1B 49 4E 57 28 07 15 01 53 17 18
Ciphertext XOR: AE 2C 0B F7 19 39 FA D6 0B 16 F4 59 1D EA D5 67
``````

Which are not the same.

What causes an encryption algorithm to be weak if a specific key is used?