I know there are now WebSockets, but what is the issue with providing a socket API to allow interacting with existing protocols?
I mean, after all, I can use a hidden flash object to do the same already. Is there an attack vector I am missing?
... but what is the issue with providing a socket API to allow interacting with existing protocols?
This is not a restriction of the language itself but of it's use inside the sandbox within the browser. Just imagine that a script somewhere on the internet gets loaded into the browser and could from inside the browser access every computer reachable by the browser with arbitrary protocols. You could easily misuse this to send spam through a companies internal mail server or attack/misuse other internal and external resources.
Which means there must be some restrictions in place and the different sandbox environments for the different language runtimes provide different kind of restrictions:
The biggest one, probably, is that you're basically providing a way to bypass firewalls if you do that. Every service on your machine that listens on loopback network sockets, normally unreachable by external attackers, can now be attacked from the browser. Every machine on your network, normally isolated from the Internet by your gateway and firewall, can now be accessed or attacked by Internet code.
There are other reasons, too. Port scanning and DDOS attacks become much easier when browsers can do them without so much as a plugin (yes, browsers can attempt to launch DDOS on HTTP(S) servers, but they could be much more efficient with lower-level sockets). Network worms (especially those that only a small proportion of machines are vulnerable to) can propagate much faster when everybody who views an ad on a popular website starts sending out attacks, instead of just those who actually get infected.
Websockets exist to give a way to do socket communication with things that explicitly want to communicate with a browser that is running untrusted code. The typical Internet server is similarly hardened, expecting malicious clients of all stripes. The problem comes from services that are not expecting malicious traffic, because they're only reachable by trusted clients. JS-controlled sockets would totally break that.