What are the possible consequences of a cache miss? In other word, is it possible that a cache miss could cause a security threat?
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Yes, cache misses can be used in timing attacks.
Place an octet string on a page boundary, validate from left to right. If a cache miss occurs than everything up to the cache miss is correct, because otherwise the verification would have stopped (hence: always test all characters of a password / PIN etc.). A cache miss is more likely to be detected than simply counting the bytes that are validated as a cache miss will take many more CPU cycles (hundreds) instead of just a few.