In order for Android to make phone calls the OS has to be able to access the SIM details. It has to know what provider the sim belongs to in order to connect to that provider's towers. As google has written Android they can theoretically suck all the details they want off of it, and the only step you could take to prevent it would be to block your phone from accessing the internet. That would limit the usefulness of your phone dramatically of course.
If you're paranoid the option is there to write your own fork of android which would prevent it from sending data to google, which would be a very big project. It's possible someone has already done this.