A pure hash function is deterministic, which means that if you hash any given value, you should always get the same hash out. 5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99 is always the MD5 hash of "password". You can try it on different machines, with MD5 implementations written in different languages, and, assuming they are correct implementations, you should always get the same hash from calling md5("password") or the specific language equivalent.
However, that is a really bad property to have in a password storage system. To mix things up, better password storage methods use a salt. In that case, the string being hashed is changed for each record. Instead of everyone who used "password" getting the same output hash, the hash is generated of "password+salt" (or "salt+password", "pass+salt+word", or any other merging. Doesn't matter for this question), so you get a bunch of distinct hashes:
- b305cadbb3bce54f3aa59c64fec00dea - passwordsalt
- 67a1e09bb1f83f5007dc119c14d663aa - saltpassword
- 9eee04c6cecbc87f7699823f559b820d - passsaltword
As can be seen, there aren't any particular common features in these, even using the MD5 hashing algorithm, which is a bad choice for password storage. (The pair of "b"s at positions 8 and 9 in the first two are just coincidental).
This is because MD5 is implements the "avalanche" effect - the change of a single input bit will cause a significant amount of the output to change (ideally about 50% for various analysis reasons).
All this combined means that even with the short salt used above, the only way to determine that the word "password" is in the three hash inputs is to try out all the possibilities.
This is dependent on the hash function used - you could construct a hash function where adding a similar salt resulted in a similar change to the output (so "passwordsalt" and "passwordsals" only vary by a small amount when hashed), but that isn't typical for hash functions used for password storage.
Furthermore, modern password storage recommendations suggest the use of something like bcrypt or scrypt, both of which generate a strong salt as part of the hash initialisation:
All of these are hashes of "password" - and having all three doesn't help you at all.