I just found my old, Windows 7 Ultimate installer DVD, so I thought I would set it up in a pentest-lab type environment, see what's possible and have some fun with it. So are there any publicly available exploits that target the default Windows 7 operating system (or default services) that will work "straight out of the box"? Thanks in advance for any info; much appreciated.
I personally like cvedetails.com:
exploit-db.com, that schroeder mentioned is great:
There are several exploits such as SMB attacks (require known credentials, like passing the hash) that will make an easy attack on a fresh system and thus helping you to find your way around the inside of the OS. If you use metasploit to do so the meterpreter shell will greatly help you find vulnerabilities through additional scanning etc. Here is a link to the website.
If you are starting with kali linux you will be provided with a plethora of attack vectors such as social engineering(Eg. SEToolkit), password cracking (Eg. JohnTheRipper), port analysis (Eg. nmap), exploit modules (Metasploit), wifi scanning etc.
One realistic setup would be to disable https and setup wireshark against a local router. In doing so any credentials logged in from the lab-pc will be sniffed and saved by wireshark. If you make a good assumption that the username and password are a lot similar to that of the pc, you could attempt many different credential based attacks towards the system. One of the most excelling tools in relation to vuln. analysis is Armitage which is available on Kali Linux as an extra to Metasploit.
Give them a go and see where you can get and what sort of escalation or attacks work best for you. Don't forget to always familiarize yourself with new environments also.
Authenticated scan using Nessus home edition can make things more easier for you as it will also provide the CVE ID which you can later search on msfconsole (Metasploit). After getting the CVE IDs you can search for the script to exploit as mentioned by @yaloner in the above comment. This will rule out most of the exploits which won't work for your system and save you the time trying out those. Refer to @Brayden on how to use Metasploit in this case.