There is nothing stopping an attacker from putting a powerline ethernet transceiver as well as a USB-enabled microcontroller into a USB charger. This would allow them to communicate with the charger in the hope to offload some malware onto a smartphone plugged into that port. However, such a device would need to be highly specialized and specifically designed for this purpose. There is simply no way that powerline ethernet could just magically transmit data over the USB data lines to a smartphone.
If you are at all afraid that something like this might be happening, there are products that exist specifically to prevent such a scenario. For example, the SyncStop:
SyncStop prevents accidental data exchange when your device is plugged into someone else’s computer or a public charging station. SyncStop achieves this by blocking the data pins on any USB cable and allowing only power to flow through. This minimizes opportunities to steal your data or install malware on your mobile device.
You could also cut the cable open and physically disconnect the D+ and D- pins (which is effectively what the SyncStop does), and that will definitely stop all communication.
How it works
Powerline ethernet works by transmitting data on a high frequency over a building's mains power wiring. This is possible due to the fact that AC mains power uses either 50Hz, 60Hz or some other relatively low frequency. These devices transpose their data directly on top of the 120V/240V already present on the mains. You can read more about how this is actually don on a hardware level here.
Any wall charger that you find that is smaller than a baseball and weighs next to nothing is what is known as a switching AC to DC converter. These devices work by rectifying the mains power to DC, smoothing the rectified DC with a large capacitance, and then using a small transformer to switch the rectified DC at a very high speed (in the neighborhood of 100s of kHz to MHz). You can read more about them here.
Why it's not possible
To rectify the AC mains to DC, the charger uses either a full wave, or half wave rectifier. These are just diodes, any signal present on the AC mains will also be present on the rectified DC, and the same can be said of the smoothing circuitry. Even if the signal present on the rectified DC was able to somehow make its way across the transformer, the switching circuit in the charger will cause quite large portions of that signal to be lost when the transformer is switched off. After the transformer, there is yet more smoothing circuitry that ensures the final output is as close to 5V as possible meaning that even if some signal made it through the aforementioned gauntlet, it would be smoothed out into silky smooth 5V.
The above doesn't even consider how USB works. There are two data pins, D+, and D-. They form what is known as a differential pair, and they mirror each other. This means that any signal present on the 5V line will also need to be mirrored to ground in order for the USB transceiver on the phone to even bat an eye. Moreover, the USB specification includes packets, handshaking, and everything you would expect from a high-speed protocol like USB. I know what you are thinking "Doesn't Ethernet also have packets and handshaking?" and yes, it does,
but that's like saying a zebra is the same as a platypus.
So no, without modifying an off-the-shelf charger with some quite complicated hardware and software, it is impossible for this to happen.