That is not possible. If an adversary captures a machine in the network, a software can listen on any traffic of that machines networking device. Hence, all traffic from and to that machine is compromised.
If an adversary can place a new machine under his control on the network, it still can only grab the traffic that somehow crosses the networking card of that device. Interacting with the network in any way may reveal the attack to an intrusion detector, so interacting with the network is not an option.
With pure listening there are two cases:
1. a hub is used
Since hubs simply broadcast all packets, all traffic that crosses the hubs wich an adversary is connected to, is compromised.
2. a switch is used
Switches do not broadcast traffic. In this case, an adversary could not grab any traffic without interacting with the network (what might reveal the attack). This is why switches are used in most places where security does play any role.
If the hub/switch/router in the network can be controlled by an attacker, all data crossing that hub is compromised, obviously. Depending on the size and infrastructure of that network, a lot of sensible data could be compromised this way.
TL;DR: on modern networks that transport sensible information, this is impossible.
P.S.: Intrusion Detection is also only software. And software has bugs. So knowning what firewall / detection software is in used in the target network will allow for some ways to interact with the network. Which traffic can be compromised in such a case is unpredictable.
Same goes for capturing a network knot (hub/switch/router): if that can be done without detection an attacker will have access to a broad scale of data on that network.