You don't need government grade malware to do this and such attacks have actually been carried out for years. Typical SOHO routers are often vulnerable to CSRF and similar attacks and this can be used by the attacker to compromise the router, i.e. changing critical settings like the DNS servers. This compromise can be executed when you visit a web site. It does not even need to be a "bad" site since such an attack can be executed from inside embedded advertisements too (malvertisement).
For an example of such an attack see How millions of DSL modems were hacked in Brazil,... which talks about how attackers compromised millions of routers in Brazil using CSRF attacks. They then changed the DNS settings in the router so that the traffic got diverted to the attacker. With this man in the middle attack the attacker then could inject advertisements or malware into the traffic to every computer using this router.
These attacks are unfortunately very common today since a large proportion of SOHO routers are insecure. See Website Security – Compromised Website Used To Hack Home Routers for hacking via compromised web sites or Spam Uses Default Passwords to Hack Routers for similar hacks done via spam mails.
As for the enterprise level routers: Once you are in (maybe via a backdoor) you effectively own a large network with often sensitive information inside. By manipulating the routing you can divert the traffic to the attacker and do the same attacks and more as described above. The main difference is that you have far more computers behind the router and these have usually more more interesting information than you will find in home networks. This means the return of investment for the attacker is usually higher when enterprise routers or even routers as ISP's are compromised.