Is there anything like this for Chrome?
No. Chrome Extensions currently have no way to access information about the TLS certificates being used, and a proposal to add this functionality was rejected back in 2015.
Would this yield a good security layer?
Let's clarify the threat model here: you're concerned about a scenario where "a MITM exchanges the shipped https-certificate and my computer trusts the signing CA". This would require the attacker to obtain a valid certificate from a trusted certificate authority for a domain they do not own.
While CAs have mistakenly issued certificates to the wrong entities in the past (Comodo, WoSign, Symantec), these are pretty rare events, and CAs that consistently fail to uphold the validation requirements in the baseline requirements have their root certificates distrusted by browser vendors. (This happened to WoSign, and is currently happening to Symantec.)
Furthermore, the security benefit that these sort of alerts would provide depends entirely on your response to noticing a modified certificate. Sites change their certificates all the time (often as frequently as once every other month, such as in the case of Let's Encrypt certs managed by Certbot), so the vast, vast majority of the time this alert appears it's just going to be a false alarm. How do you plan to distinguish these false alarms from a legitimate attack? Unless you have some out-of-band way of verifying whether the new certificate you're seeing is legitimate, an alert won't do much.