While working on a project that used the REST API for Gerrit Code Review I noticed that they do something that I thought was strange Source:

To prevent against Cross Site Script Inclusion (XSSI) attacks, the JSON response body starts with a magic prefix line that must be stripped before feeding the rest of the response body to a JSON parser:

[ ... valid JSON ... ]

How does prefixing the response body with seemingly random characters work to prevent XSSI?


1 Answer 1


XSSI works by trying to evaluate a JSON response as Javascript and the sequence )]}' prevents this by reliably producing a syntax error.

There have been different proposed countermeasures against unwanted script inclusion, but putting an infinite loop (I have seen for(;;) used in Facebook APIs) or producing a syntax error (some Google APIs use )]}' as in your example) has shown to be sufficiently sound and is backward compatible. This article has some additional examples.

If you're unsure about why XSSI is a threat in the first place and violates the same-origin policy, read about it here.

  • '...evaluate your JSON response as Javascript' Is that common? It seems like a really unsafe practice.
    – ecnepsnai
    Commented Jan 14, 2016 at 17:27
  • 1
    @ecnepsnai It's a concept to overcome cross-origin restrictions and the core idea of JSONP. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSONP
    – Arminius
    Commented Jan 14, 2016 at 17:53
  • LOL -- "The browser's security mechanisms won't let me load this JSON data from a foreign source. I know! Embed the data inside javascript and eval() it!". That sounds like a terrible idea.... Commented Aug 14, 2019 at 19:05

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