Would 2 factor authentication SMS messages or other kinds of internet security notifications work with satellite phones? E.g. companies like Google, Paypal, Facebook, banking institutions and others would still send/recognize phone numbers associated with satellite carriers? Any experience?
As mentioned in the comments, there should not be a technical problem using satellite phones for 2 factor auth, but there is a cost aspect for the service provider that might stop it. As the service provider normally pays for the texts used for 2 factor authentication, there may be limitations set up.
On this site you will see how the supplier mentions the fact that satellite phones would be a huge expense for the business.
Maximum call rate : Since you are paying for the outbound calls , you also have the option to limit the cost per minute associated with these calls. You probably do not want your end-users authenticating themselves using Satellite phones (that would be very expensive, ouch!)