You need to hide your GPS info. My browser asked me permission to use GPS location services in my Macbook Pro when I was entering the whatismyipaddress URL that you are visiting, and I denied it. So the site is asking for that.
So it believes I am in California, USA. Otherwise with GPS, the scripts/site would find out my true location.
It could be also that your VPN is configured for split tunnelling, and only used for accessing corporate resources; and hence all the Internet traffic going the usual route (outside the VPN). Not that usual, but it is a possibility.
To check it out wether you have split tunnelling or no, is fairly easy, the IP on whatismyipaddress has to change once you activate the VPN service and reload the page.
As @Neil points out, it could also be the VPN not working, however usually in that case the Cisco software normally throws a very visible error.
I actually went at the end of this conversation with @Neil to settings->security->privacy in my "El Capitan" and took out location services permission for good from Safari.
Conclusion: From the dialogue with the OP, it is indeed confirmed the VPN service is configured as Split mode only for providing services for specific services/networks in the University.
That configuration, confirmed by
Tunnel Mode (IPv4): Split Include, while not frequent (or correctly forbidden) in corporate setups, is often done for students, for them to not abuse the VPN/academic infra-structure, namely using p2p services from home to avoid consequences.
In this case, the only route is to find an alternative VPN service, possibly a commercial one. I actually use VPN unlimited, there are others.
Or using Tor+onion browser. https://www.torproject.org