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This question asks for pointers about generating JtR rulesets, but the OP states

I understand how to use it to make various permutations from a given wordlist

Could someone please explain that? From the documentation, it seems as though REGEX mode, MASK mode, and Wordlist mode all permit this.

But how to generate a rule that contains permutations of a certain word (suffixes, prefixes, 1337speak)?

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This is a solution for suffixes and prefixes for a given fixed, without 1337speak.

Using MASK mode, you give parameters on the command line. If the known word part is barquux and you need to suffix 3 characters and prefix 2, all of them digits, use

john -mask=?d?dbarquux?d?d?d -min-len=9 -max-len=14 file_to_crack

For mask options, see the MASK mode documentation file.

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